Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Accipitridae Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus ****
Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis ****
Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus ****
Broad-winged Hawk Buteo platypterus ****
Northern Harrier Circus cyaneus ****
Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus ****
Osprey Pandion haliaetus ****
Cooper’s Hawk Accipiter cooperii ***
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis ***
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos °
Rough-legged Hawk Buteo lagopus °
Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus °
Mississippi Kite Ictinia mississippiensis °
Alaudidae Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris °
Alcedinidae Belted Kingfisher Ceryle alcyon ****
Alcidae Razorbill Alca torda °
Dovekie Alle alle °
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica °
Great Auk Pinguinus impennis °
Common Murre Uria aalge °
Thick-billed Murre Uria lomvia °
Anatidae Wood Duck Aix sponsa ****
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors ****
American Black Duck Anas rubripes ****
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula ****
Barrow’s Goldeneye Bucephala islandica ****
Snow Goose Chen caerulescens ****
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator ****
Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons ***
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus ***
Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus ***
Common Merganser Mergus merganser ***
King Eider Somateria spectabilis ***
Northern Pintail Anas acuta **
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris **
Greater Scaup Aythya marila **
Brant Branta bernicla **
Canada Goose Branta canadensis **
Bufflehead Bucephala albeola **
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula **
Labrador Duck Camptorhynchus labradorius **
Long-tailed Duck (Oldsquaw) Clangula hyemalis **
Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus **
White-winged Scoter Melanitta fusca **
Black Scoter Melanitta nigra **
Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata **
Common Eider Somateria mollissima **
American Wigeon Anas americana °
Northern Shoveler Anas clypeata °
Green-winged Teal Anas crecca °
Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope °
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos °
Gadwall Anas strepera °
Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis °
Redhead Aythya americana °
Canvasback Aythya valisineria °
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis °
Apodidae Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica ***
Ardeidae American Bittern Botaurus lentiginosus ****
Green Heron Butorides virescens ****
Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax ****
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias ***
Least Bittern Ixobrychus exilis ***
Great Egret Ardea alba **
Snowy Egret Egretta thula **
Little Blue Heron Egretta caerulea °
Tricolored Heron Egretta tricolor °
Yellow-crowned Night Heron Nyctanassa violacea °
Bombycillidae Cedar Waxwing Bombycilla cedrorum ****
Caprimulgidae Whip-poor-will Caprimulgus vociferus ****
Common Nighthawk Chordeiles minor ****
Chuck-will’s-widow Caprimulgus carolinensis °
Cathartidae Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura **
Black Vulture Coragyps atratus °
Certhiidae Brown Creeper Certhia americana ****
Charadriidae Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla ****
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus ****
Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola ****
Piping Plover Charadrius melodus ***
American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica ***
Columbidae Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius ****
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura ****
Corvidae American Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos ****
Common Raven Corvus corax ****
Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata ****
Fish Crow Corvus ossifragus °
Gray Jay Perisoreus canadensis °
Cuculidae Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus ****
Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus **
Emberizidae Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus caudacutus ****
American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis ****
Purple Finch Carpodacus purpureus ****
Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula ****
Swamp Sparrow Melospiza georgiana ****
Lincoln’s Sparrow Melospiza lincolnii ****
Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia ****
Fox Sparrow Passerella iliaca ****
Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea ****
Rose-breasted Grosbeak Pheucticus ludovicianus ****
Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus ****
Common Grackle Quiscalus quiscula ****
American Tree Sparrow Spizella arborea ****
Clay-colored Sparrow Spizella pallida ****
Chipping Sparrow Spizella passerina ****
Field Sparrow Spizella pusilla ****
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis ****
White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys ****
Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow Ammodramus nelsoni ***
Lapland Longspur Calcarius lapponicus ***
Lark Sparrow Chondestes grammacus ***
Bobolink Dolichonyx oryzivorus ***
Savannah Sparrow Passerculus sandwichensis ***
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis ***
Boat-tailed Grackle Quiscalus major ***
Henslow’s Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii **
Seaside Sparrow Ammodramus maritimus **
Pine Siskin Carduelis pinus **
Orchard Oriole Icterus spurius **
Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis **
Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra **
Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus **
Dickcissel Spiza americana **
Le Conte’s Sparrow Ammodramus leconteii °
Grasshopper Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum °
Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis °
Common Redpoll Carduelis flammea °
Evening Grosbeak Coccothraustes vespertinus °
White-winged Crossbill Loxia leucoptera °
Brown-headed Cowbird Molothrus ater °
Blue Grosbeak Passerina caerulea °
Painted Bunting Passerina ciris °
Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator °
Western Tanager Piranga ludoviciana °
Falconidae Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus ****
American Kestrel Falco sparverius ****
Merlin Falco columbarius ***
Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus °
Gaviidae Common Loon Gavia immer **
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata °
Gruidae Whooping Crane Grus americana °
Haematopodidae American Oystercatcher Haematopus palliatus **
Hirundinidae Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica ****
Bank Swallow Riparia riparia ****
Tree Swallow Tachycineta bicolor ****
Cliff Swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota ***
Purple Martin Progne subis ***
Northern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx serripennis **
Hydrobatidae Leach’s Storm-Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa °
Icteridae Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus ****
Eastern Meadowlark Sturnella magna ***
Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus ***
Rusty Blackbird Euphagus carolinus **
Brewer’s Blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus °
Laniidae Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor ***
Loggerhead Shrike Lanius ludovicianus ***
Laridae Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis ****
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides ****
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus ****
Common Tern Sterna hirundo ****
Black Tern Chlidonias niger ***
Laughing Gull Larus atricilla ***
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus ***
Little Gull Larus minutus ***
Bonaparte’s Gull Larus philadelphia ***
Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla ***
Least Tern Sternula antillarum ***
Sabine’s Gull Xema sabini ***
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia **
Herring Gull Larus argentatus **
Forster’s Tern Sterna forsteri **
Royal Tern Thalasseus maximus **
Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica °
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus °
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus °
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii °
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea °
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis °
Mimidae Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis ****
Brown Thrasher Toxostoma rufum ****
Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos °
Motacillidae American Pipit Anthus rubescens **
Odontophoridae Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus ****
Paridae Black-capped Chickadee Poecile atricapillus ****
White-breasted Nuthatch Sitta carolinensis ****
Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor °
Boreal Chickadee Poecile hudsonica °
Red-breasted Nuthatch Sitta canadensis °
Parulidae Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerulescens ****
Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea ****
Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fusca ****
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia ****
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia ****
Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata ****
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens ****
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas ****
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia ****
Northern Parula Parula americana ****
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapilla ****
Northern Waterthrush Seiurus noveboracensis ****
American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla ****
Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla ****
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis ****
Wilson’s Warbler Wilsonia pusilla ****
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica ***
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis ***
Mourning Warbler Oporornis philadelphia ***
Prothonotary Warbler Protonotaria citrea ***
Tennessee Warbler Vermivora peregrina ***
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata **
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmarum **
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica **
Cape May Warbler Dendroica tigrina **
Hooded Warbler Geothlypis nelsoni **
Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea °
Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor °
Black-throated Gray Warbler Dendroica nigrescens °
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus °
Townsend’s Warbler Dendroica townsendi °
Worm-eating Warbler Helmitheros vermivorum °
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens °
Swainson’s Warbler Limnothlypis swainsonii °
Kentucky Warbler Oporornis formosus °
Louisiana Waterthrush Seiurus motacilla °
Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata °
Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera °
Blue-winged Warbler Vermivora pinus °
Pelecanidae American White Pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos °
Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidentalis °
Phaethontidae Northern Gannet Morus bassanus **
Phalacrocoracidae Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus ****
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo ***
Anhinga Anhinga anhinga °
Phasianidae Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus ****
Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo ****
Greater Prairie-Chicken or Heath Hen Tympanuchus cupido ****
Picidae Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus ****
Pileated Woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus ****
Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus ****
Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens ****
Hairy Woodpecker Picoides villosus ****
Red-headed Woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus **
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius **
Black-backed Woodpecker Picoides arcticus °
Podicidepidae Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps ****
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus ***
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena ***
Eared Grebe Podiceps nigricollis °
Procellariidae Wilson’s Storm-Petrel Oceanites oceanicus **
Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea °
Northern Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis °
Greater Shearwater Puffinus gravis °
Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus °
Rallidae Common Moorhen Gallinula chloropus ****
Sora Porzana carolina ****
Virginia Rail Rallus limicola ****
Clapper Rail Rallus longirostris ****
American Coot Fulica americana ***
King Rail Rallus elegans ***
Yellow Rail Coturnicops noveboracensis **
Black Rail Laterallus jamaicensis **
Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinica °
Recurvirostridae Black-necked Stilt Himantopus mexicanus °
American Avocet Recurvirostra americana °
Regulidae Ruby-crowned Kinglet Regulus calendula **
Golden-crowned Kinglet Regulus satrapa °
Rynchopinae Black Skimmer Rynchops niger °
Scolopacidae Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius ****
Upland Sandpiper Bartramia longicauda ****
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis ****
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos ****
Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla ****
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus ****
Hudsonian Godwit Limosa haemastica ****
Long-billed Curlew Numenius americanus ****
Eskimo Curlew Numenius borealis ****
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus ****
American Woodcock Scolopax minor ****
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes ****
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca ****
Solitary Sandpiper Tringa solitaria ****
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres ***
Red Knot Calidris canutus ***
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea ***
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris himantopus ***
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima ***
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri ***
Red-necked Stint Calidris ruficollis ***
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus ***
Marbled Godwit Limosa fedoa ***
Ruff Philomachus pugnax ***
Willet Tringa semipalmata ***
Sanderling Calidris alba **
Dunlin Calidris alpina **
Common Snipe or American Snipe Gallinago gallinago **
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus **
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Tryngites subruficollis **
Baird’s Sandpiper Calidris bairdii °
Little Stint Calidris minuta °
Red Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius °
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus °
Wilson’s Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor °
Stercorariidae Long-tailed Jaeger Stercorarius longicaudatus °
Parasitic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus °
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus °
Strigidae Northern Saw-whet Owl Aegolius acadicus ****
Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus ****
Eastern Screech Owl Megascops asio ****
Barred Owl Strix varia ****
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus ***
Snowy Owl Bubo scandiacus ***
Long-eared Owl Asio otus **
Barn Owl Tyto alba **
Thraupidae Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea ****
Summer Tanager Piranga rubra °
Threshkiornithidae Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus °
Threskiornithidae White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi °
Trochilidae Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris ****
Troglodytidae Marsh Wren Cistothorus palustris ****
House Wren Troglodytes aedon ****
Sedge Wren Cistothorus platensis ***
Winter Wren Troglodytes troglodytes ***
Carolina Wren Thryothorus ludovicianus **
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Polioptila caerulea °
Bewick’s Wren Thryomanes bewickii °
Turdidae Veery Catharus fuscescens ****
Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus ****
Swainson’s Thrush Catharus ustulatus ****
American Robin Turdus migratorius ****
Varied Thrush Ixoreus naevius ***
Eastern Bluebird Sialia sialis ***
Bicknell’s Thrush Catharus bicknelli **
Gray-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus **
Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina **
Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe °
Tyrannidae Olive-sided Flycatcher Contopus cooperi ****
Eastern Wood-Peewee Contopus virens ****
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher Empidonax flaviventris ****
Least Flycatcher Empidonax minimus ****
Great Crested Flycatcher Myiarchus crinitus ****
Eastern Phoebe Sayornis phoebe ****
Eastern Kingbird Tyrannus tyrannus ****
Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum ***
Willow Flycatcher Empidonax traillii **
Acadian Flycatcher Empidonax virescens **
Western Kingbird Tyrannus verticalis **
Ash-throated Flycatcher Myiarchus cinerascens °
Vireonidae Warbling Vireo Vireo gilvus ****
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus ****
Philadelphia Vireo Vireo philadelphicus ***
Blue-headed Vireo Vireo solitarius ***
Yellow-throated Vireo Vireo flavifrons **
White-eyed Vireo Vireo griseus **
Bell’s Vireo Vireo bellii °