Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Acipenseridae Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus ****
Shortnose Sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum ***
Albulidae Bonefish Albula vulpes °
Ammodytidae American Sand Lance Ammodytes americanus ****
Anguillidae American Eel Anguilla rostrata ****
Atherinidae Rough Silverside Membras martinica ****
Inland Silverside Menidia beryllina ****
Atlantic Silverside Menidia menidia ****
Balistidae Planehead Filefish Stephanolepis hispidus **
Orange Filefish Aluterus schoepfii °
Batrachoididae Oyster Toadfish Opsanus tau ****
Belonidae Atlantic Needlefish Strongylura marina ****
Houndfish Tylosurus crocodilus °
Blenniidae Feather Blenny Hypsoblennius hentz ***
Bothidae Fourspot Flounder Hippoglossina oblonga ****
Summer Flounder Paralichthys dentatus ****
Windowpane Scophthalmus aquosus ****
Gulf Stream Flounder Citharichthys arctifrons °
Smallmouth Flounder Etropus microstomus °
Carangidae Crevalle Jack Caranx hippos ****
Atlantic Moonfish Selene setapinnis ***
Lookdown Selene vomer ***
Permit Trachinotus falcatus **
Carcharhinidae Bull Shark Carcharhinus leucas ***
Smooth Dogfish Mustelus canis ***
Dusky Shark Carcharhinus obscurus **
Sandbar Shark Carcharhinus plumbeus **
Catostomidae White Sucker Catostomus commersonii ****
Creek Chubsucker Erimyzon oblongus ****
Shorthead Redhorse Moxostoma macrolepidotum **
Centrarchidae Red-breast Sunfish Lepomis auritus ****
Pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus ****
Bluespotted Sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus ***
Banded Sunfish Enneacanthus obesus °
Chaetodontidae Foureye Butterflyfish or Butterbun Chaetodon capristratus °
Spotfin Butterflyfish Chaetodon ocellatus °
Clupeidae Hickory Shad Alosa mediocris ****
Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus ****
American Shad Alosa sapidissima ****
Atlantic Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus ****
Atlantic Herring Clupea harengus ****
Round Herring Etrumeus teres ****
Blueback Herring Alosa aestivalis ***
Congridae Conger Eel or American Conger Conger oceanicus ****
Cottidae Slimy Sculpin Cottus cognatus ****
Sea Raven Hemitripterus americanus ****
Grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus ****
Longhorn Sculpin Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus ****
Cyclopteridae Lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus °
Atlantic Seasnail Liparis atlanticus °
Cyprinidae Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas ****
Eastern Blacknose Dace Rhinichthys atratulus ****
Satinfin Shiner Notropis analostanus ***
Bridle Shiner Notropis bifrenatus ***
Spottail Shiner Notropis hudsonius ***
Cutlips Minnow Exoglossum maxillingua **
Eastern Silvery Minnow Hybognathus regius **
Common Shiner Luxilus cornutus **
Longnose Dace Rhinichthys cataractae **
Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus **
Comely Shiner Notropis amoenus °
Bluntnose Minnow Pimephales notatus °
Cyprinodontidae Mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus ****
Spotfin Killifish Fundulus luciae ****
Dactylopteridae Flying Gurnard Dactylopterus volitans ***
Echeneidae Sharksucker Echeneis naucrates ***
Elopidae Ladyfish Elops saurus °
Tarpon Megalops atlanticus °
Engraulidae Striped Anchovy Anchoa hepsetus ****
Bay Anchovy Anchoa mitchilli ****
Ephippidae Atlantic Spadefish Chaetodipterus faber °
Esocidae Redfin Pickerel Esox americanus ****
Chain Pickerel Esox niger ****
Northern Pike Esox lucius °
Fistulariidae Bluespotted Cornetfish Fistularia tabacaria °
Fundulidae Banded Killifish Fundulus diaphanus ****
Striped Killifish Fundulus majalis ***
Gadidae Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua ****
Atlantic Tomcod Microgadus tomcod ****
Red Hake Urophycis chuss ****
Spotted Hake Urophycis regia ****
Pollack Pollachius virens ***
Fourbeard Rockling Enchelyopus cimbrius **
Silver Hake Merluccius bilinearis **
White Hake Urophycis tenuis °
Gasterosteidae Fourspine Stickleback Apeltes quadracus ****
Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus ****
Ninespine Stickleback Pungitius pungitius ****
Gerreidae Spotfin Mjorra Eucinostomus argenteus **
Gobiidae Naked Goby Gobiosoma bosc ****
Highfin Goby Gobionellus oceanicus °
Ictaluridae White Catfish Ameiurus catus ****
Brown Bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus ****
Tadpole Madtom Noturus gyrinus **
Margined Madtom Noturus insignis **
Yellow Bullhead Ameiurus natalis °
Labridae Tautog Tautoga onitis ****
Cunner Tautogolabrus adspersus ****
Lophiiformes Goosefish or American Angler Lophius americanus **
Lutjanidae Pigfish Orthopristis chrysoptera ****
Grey Snapper Lutjanus griseus ***
Schoolmaster Lutjanus apodus °
Moronidae White Perch Morone americana ****
Striped Bass Morone saxatilis ****
Mugilidae Striped Mullet Mugil cephalus ****
White Mullet Mugil curema ****
Odontaspididae Sand Tiger Odontaspis taurus **
Ophidiidae Striped Cusk-eel Ophidion marginatum ****
Osmeridae Atlantic Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax ****
Ostraciidae Scrawled Cowfish Acanthostracion quadricornis **
Percidae Tessellated Darter Etheostoma olmstedi ****
Yellow Perch Perca flavescens ****
Petromyzontidae Sea Lamprey Petromyzon marinus ****
American Brook Lamprey Lampetra appendix ***
Pholidae Rock Gunnel Pholis gunnellus ****
Pleuronectidae Winter Flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus ****
Yellowtail Flounder Limanda ferruginea °
Pomatomidae Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix ****
Priacanthidae Short Bigeye Pristigenys alta °
Rachycentridae Cobia Rachycentron canadum °
Rajidae Little Skate Leucoraja erinacea ****
Barndoor Skate Dipturus laevis °
Salmonidae Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis ****
Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar **
Sciaenidae Silver Perch Bairdiella chrysoura ****
Weakfish Cynoscion regalis ****
Spot Croaker Leiostomus xanthurus ****
Northern Kingfish Menticirrhus saxatilis ****
Black Drum Pogonias cromis ****
Atlantic Mackerel Scomber scombrus ****
Atlantic Croaker Micropogonias undulatus **
Spanish Mackerel Scomberomorus maculatus **
Serranidae Black Sea Bass Centropristis striata ****
Gag Mycteroperca microlepis °
Soleidae Hogchoker Trinectes maculatus ****
Sparidae Sheepshead Seabream Archosargus probatocephalus ****
Porgy (Scup) Stenotomus chrysops ****
Pinfish Lagodon rhomboides ***
Sphyraenidae Guaguanche Sphyraena guachancho **
Northern Sennet Sphyraena borealis °
Squalidae Spiny Dogfish or Piked Dogfish Squalus acanthias ****
Stromateidae Butterfish Peprilus triacanthus ***
Syngnathidae Lined Seahorse Hippocampus erectus ****
Northern Pipefish Syngnathus fuscus ****
Synodontidae Inshore Lizardfish Synodus foetens **
Tetraodontidae Northern Puffer Sphoeroides maculatus ****
Smooth Puffer Lagocephalus laevigatus ***
Striped Burrfish Chilomycterus schoepfii °
Thrichiuridae Atlantic Cutlassfish or Largehead Hairtail Trichiurus lepturus **
Triglidae Striped Searobin Prionotus evolans ****
Northern Searobin Prionotus carolinus ***
Umbridae Eastern Mudminnow Umbra pygmaea ****
Uranoscopidae Northern Stargazer Astroscopus guttatus °