Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Accipitridae Sharp-shinned Hawk ****
Red-tailed Hawk ****
Red-shouldered Hawk ****
Broad-winged Hawk ****
Northern Harrier ****
Bald Eagle ****
Osprey ****
Cooper’s Hawk ***
Northern Goshawk ***
Golden Eagle °
Rough-legged Hawk °
Swallow-tailed Kite °
Mississippi Kite °
Alaudidae Horned Lark °
Alcedinidae Belted Kingfisher ****
Alcidae Razorbill °
Dovekie °
Atlantic Puffin °
Great Auk °
Common Murre °
Thick-billed Murre °
Anatidae Wood Duck ****
Blue-winged Teal ****
American Black Duck ****
Tufted Duck ****
Barrow’s Goldeneye ****
Snow Goose ****
Red-breasted Merganser ****
Greater White-fronted Goose ***
Tundra Swan ***
Harlequin Duck ***
Common Merganser ***
King Eider ***
Northern Pintail **
Ring-necked Duck **
Greater Scaup **
Brant **
Canada Goose **
Bufflehead **
Common Goldeneye **
Labrador Duck **
Long-tailed Duck (Oldsquaw) **
Hooded Merganser **
White-winged Scoter **
Black Scoter **
Surf Scoter **
Common Eider **
American Wigeon °
Northern Shoveler °
Green-winged Teal °
Eurasian Wigeon °
Mallard °
Gadwall °
Lesser Scaup °
Redhead °
Canvasback °
Ruddy Duck °
Apodidae Chimney Swift ***
Ardeidae American Bittern ****
Green Heron ****
Black-crowned Night Heron ****
Great Blue Heron ***
Least Bittern ***
Great Egret **
Snowy Egret **
Little Blue Heron °
Tricolored Heron °
Yellow-crowned Night Heron °
Bombycillidae Cedar Waxwing ****
Caprimulgidae Whip-poor-will ****
Common Nighthawk ****
Chuck-will’s-widow °
Cathartidae Turkey Vulture **
Black Vulture °
Certhiidae Brown Creeper ****
Charadriidae Semipalmated Sandpiper ****
Killdeer ****
Black-bellied Plover ****
Piping Plover ***
American Golden Plover ***
Columbidae Passenger Pigeon ****
Mourning Dove ****
Corvidae American Crow ****
Common Raven ****
Blue Jay ****
Fish Crow °
Gray Jay °
Cuculidae Black-billed Cuckoo ****
Yellow-billed Cuckoo **
Emberizidae Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed Sparrow ****
American Goldfinch ****
Purple Finch ****
Baltimore Oriole ****
Swamp Sparrow ****
Lincoln’s Sparrow ****
Song Sparrow ****
Fox Sparrow ****
Indigo Bunting ****
Rose-breasted Grosbeak ****
Eastern Towhee ****
Common Grackle ****
American Tree Sparrow ****
Clay-colored Sparrow ****
Chipping Sparrow ****
Field Sparrow ****
White-throated Sparrow ****
White-crowned Sparrow ****
Nelson’s Sharp-tailed Sparrow ***
Lapland Longspur ***
Lark Sparrow ***
Bobolink ***
Savannah Sparrow ***
Snow Bunting ***
Boat-tailed Grackle ***
Henslow’s Sparrow **
Seaside Sparrow **
Pine Siskin **
Orchard Oriole **
Dark-eyed Junco **
Red Crossbill **
Vesper Sparrow **
Dickcissel **
LeConte’s Sparrow °
Grasshopper Sparrow °
Northern Cardinal °
Common Redpoll °
Evening Grosbeak °
White-winged Crossbill °
Brown-headed Cowbird °
Blue Grosbeak °
Painted Bunting °
Pine Grosbeak °
Western Tanager °
Falconidae Peregrine Falcon ****
American Kestrel ****
Merlin ***
Gyrfalcon °
Gaviidae Common Loon **
Red-throated Loon °
Gruidae Whooping Crane °
Haematopodidae American Oystercatcher **
Hirundinidae Barn Swallow ****
Bank Swallow ****
Tree Swallow ****
Cliff Swallow ***
Purple Martin ***
Northern Rough-winged Swallow **
Hydrobatidae Leach’s Storm-Petrel °
Icteridae Red-winged Blackbird ****
Eastern Meadowlark ***
Yellow-headed Blackbird ***
Rusty Blackbird **
Brewer’s Blackbird °
Laniidae Northern Shrike ***
Loggerhead Shrike ***
Laridae Black-headed Gull ****
Ring-billed Gull ****
Iceland Gull ****
Common Tern ****
Black Tern ***
Bonaparte’s Gull ***
Laughing Gull ***
Glaucous Gull ***
Little Gull ***
Black-legged Kittiwake ***
Least Tern ***
Sabine’s Gull ***
Caspian Tern **
Herring Gull **
Forster’s Tern **
Royal Tern **
Gull-billed Tern °
Lesser Black-backed Gull °
Greater Black-backed Gull °
Roseate Tern °
Arctic Tern °
Sandwich Tern °
Mimidae Gray Catbird ****
Brown Thrasher ****
Northern Mockingbird °
Motacillidae American Pipit **
Odontophoridae Northern Bobwhite ****
Paridae Black-capped Chickadee ****
White-breasted Nuthatch ****
Tufted Titmouse °
Boreal Chickadee °
Red-breasted Nuthatch °
Parulidae Canada Warbler ****
Wilson’s Warbler ****
Common Yellowthroat ****
Nashville Warbler ****
Black-and-white Warbler ****
Northern Waterthrush ****
Ovenbird ****
Northern Parula ****
Black-throated Blue Warbler ****
Bay-breasted Warbler ****
Blackburnian Warbler ****
Magnolia Warbler ****
Yellow Warbler ****
American Redstart ****
Blackpoll Warbler ****
Black-throated Green Warbler ****
Mourning Warbler ***
Tennessee Warbler ***
Connecticut Warbler ***
Prothonotary Warbler ***
Yellow-throated Warbler ***
Palm Warbler **
Hooded Warbler **
Yellow-rumped Warbler **
Chestnut-sided Warbler **
Cape May Warbler **
Black-throated Gray Warbler °
Townsend’s Warbler °
Worm-eating Warbler °
Yellow-breasted Chat °
Orange-crowned Warbler °
Swainson’s Warbler °
Kentucky Warbler °
Cerulean Warbler °
Prairie Warbler °
Pine Warbler °
Golden-winged Warbler °
Blue-winged Warbler °
Pelecanidae American White Pelican °
Brown Pelican °
Phaethontidae Northern Gannet **
Phalacrocoracidae Double-crested Cormorant ****
Great Cormorant ***
Anhinga °
Phasianidae Ruffed Grouse ****
Wild Turkey ****
Heath Hen ****
Picidae Northern Flicker ****
Pileated Woodpecker ****
Red-bellied Woodpecker ****
Downy Woodpecker ****
Hairy Woodpecker ****
Red-headed Woodpecker **
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker **
Black-backed Woodpecker °
Podicidepidae Pied-billed Grebe ****
Horned Grebe ***
Red-necked Grebe ***
Eared Grebe °
Procellariidae Wilson’s Storm-Petrel **
Cory’s Shearwater °
Northern Fulmar °
Greater Shearwater °
Sooty Shearwater °
Rallidae Common Moorhen ****
Sora ****
Virginia Rail ****
Clapper Rail ****
American Coot ***
King Rail ***
Yellow Rail **
Black Rail **
Purple Gallinule °
Recurvirostridae Black-necked Stilt °
American Avocet °
Regulidae Ruby-crowned Kinglet **
Golden-crowned Kinglet °
Rynchopinae Black Skimmer °
Scolopacidae Spotted Sandpiper ****
Upland Sandpiper ****
White-rumped Sandpiper ****
Pectoral Sandpiper ****
Least Sandpiper ****
Semipalmated Plover ****
Hudsonian Godwit ****
Long-billed Curlew ****
Eskimo Curlew ****
Whimbrel ****
American Woodcock ****
Lesser Yellowlegs ****
Greater Yellowlegs ****
Solitary Sandpiper ****
Ruddy Turnstone ***
Red Knot ***
Curlew Sandpiper ***
Stilt Sandpiper ***
Purple Sandpiper ***
Western Sandpiper ***
Red-necked Stint ***
Long-billed Dowitcher ***
Marbled Godwit ***
Ruff ***
Willet ***
Sanderling **
Dunlin **
Short-billed Dowitcher **
Buff-breasted Sandpiper **
Baird’s Sandpiper °
Little Stint °
Red Phalarope °
Red-necked Phalarope °
Wilson’s Phalarope °
Stercorariidae Long-tailed Jaeger °
Parasitic Jaeger °
Pomarine Jaeger °
Strigidae Northern Saw-whet Owl ****
Great Horned Owl ****
Eastern Screech Owl ****
Barred Owl ****
Short-eared Owl ***
Snowy Owl ***
Long-eared Owl **
Barn Owl **
Thraupidae Scarlet Tanager ****
Summer Tanager °
Threshkiornithidae Glossy Ibis °
Threskiornithidae White-faced Ibis °
Trochilidae Ruby-throated Hummingbird ****
Troglodytidae Marsh Wren ****
House Wren ****
Sedge Wren ***
Winter Wren ***
Carolina Wren **
Blue-gray Gnatcatcher °
Bewick’s Wren °
Turdidae Veery ****
Hermit Thrush ****
Swainson’s Thrush ****
American Robin ****
Varied Thrush ***
Eastern Bluebird ***
Bicknells Thrush **
Gray-cheeked Thrush **
Wood Thrush **
Northern Wheatear °
Tyrannidae Olive-sided Flycatcher ****
Eastern Wood Peewee ****
Yellow-bellied Flycatcher ****
Least Flycatcher ****
Great Crested Flycatcher ****
Eastern Phoebe ****
Eastern Kingbird ****
Alder Flycatcher ***
Willow Flycatcher **
Acadian Flycatcher **
Western Kingbird **
Ash-throated Flycatcher °
Vireonidae Warbling Vireo ****
Red-eyed Vireo ****
Philadelphia Vireo ***
Blue-headed Vireo ***
Yellow-throated Vireo **
White-eyed Vireo **
Bell’s Vireo °