Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).


Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
Cheloniidae Loggerhead Sea Turtle ****
Green Turtle ****
Atlantic Ridley Sea Turtle ****
Atlantic Hawksbill Sea Turtle **
Chelydridae Snapping Turtle ****
Colubridae Northern Black Racer ****
Brown Snake ****
Eastern Garter Snake ****
Eastern Worm Snake ***
Northern Ringneck Snake ***
Eastern Hognose Snake ***
Eastern Milk Snake ***
Northern Water Snake ***
Smooth Green Snake ***
Redbelly Snake ***
Eastern Ribbon Snake ***
Black Rat Snake **
Rough Green Snake **
Northern Scarlet Snake °
Southern Ringneck Snake °
Corn Snake °
Eastern Kingsnake °
Scarlet Kingsnake °
Northern Pine Snake °
Queen Snake °
Smooth Earth Snake °
Dermochylidae Leatherback Sea Turtle **
Emydidae Eastern Painted Turtle ****
Spotted Turtle ***
Diamondback Terrapin ***
Eastern Box Turtle ***
Wood Turtle **
Bog Turtle **
Common Map Turtle **
Redbelly Turtle **
Blanding’s Turtle °
Kinosternidae Eastern Mud Turtle ***
Common Musk Turtle ***
Phrynosomatidae Northern Fence Lizard **
Scincidae Five-lined Skink **
Ground Skink °
Viperidae Timber Rattlesnake ****
Northern Copperhead **