Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).


Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
Ambystomatidae Blue Spotted Salamander Complex Ambystoma laterale ***
Spotted Salamander Ambystoma maculatum ***
Marbled Salamander Ambystoma opacum ***
Eastern Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum ***
Bufonidae Fowler’s Toad Bufo fowleri ****
American Toad Bufo americanus **
Hylidae Spring Peeper Pseudacris crucifer ****
Northern Cricket Frog Acris crepitans ***
Northern Gray Treefrog Hyla versicolor ***
Upland Chorus Frog Pseudacris triseriata **
Pine Barrens Treefrog Hyla andersonii °
New Jersey Chorus Frog Pseudacris triseriata kalmi °
Pelobatidae Eastern Spadefoot Toad Scaphiopus holbrookii ***
Plethodontidae Dusky Salamander Desmognathus fuscus ****
Two Lined Salamander Eurycea bislineata ****
Redback Salamander Plethodon cinereus ****
Four Toed Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum ***
Slimy Salamander Plethodon glutinosus ***
Red Salamander Pseudotriton ruber ***
Spring Salamander Gyrinophilus porphyriticus **
Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander Desmognathus ochrophaeus °
Longtail Salamander Eurycea longicauda °
Mud Salamander Pseudotriton montanus °
Ranidae Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana ****
Green Frog Rana clamitans ***
Pickerel Frog Rana palustris ***
Southern Leopard Frog Rana sphenocephala ***
Wood Frog Rana sylvatica ***
Northern Leopard Frog Rana pipiens **
Carpenter Frog Rana virgatipes °
Salamandridae Red Spotted Newt Notophthalmus viridescens ***