Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).


Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
Ambystomatidae Blue Spotted Salamander Complex ***
Spotted Salamander ***
Marbled Salamander ***
Eastern Tiger Salamander ***
Bufonidae Fowler’s Toad ****
American Toad **
Hylidae Spring Peeper ****
Northern Cricket Frog ***
Northern Gray Treefrog ***
Upland Chorus Frog **
Pine Barrens Treefrog °
New Jersey Chorus Frog °
Pelobatidae Eastern Spadefoot Toad ***
Plethodontidae Dusky Salamander ****
Two Lined Salamander ****
Redback Salamander ****
Four Toed Salamander ***
Slimy Salamander ***
Red Salamander ***
Spring Salamander **
Allegheny Mountain Dusky Salamander °
Longtail Salamander °
Mud Salamander °
Ranidae Bullfrog ****
Green Frog ***
Pickerel Frog ***
Southern Leopard Frog ***
Wood Frog ***
Northern Leopard Frog **
Carpenter Frog °
Salamandridae Red Spotted Newt ***