Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Acipenseridae Atlantic sturgeon ****
Shortnose sturgeon ***
Albulidae Bonefish °
Ammodytidae American sand lance ****
Anguillidae American eel ****
Atherinidae Rough silverside ****
Inland silverside ****
Atlantic silverside ****
Balistidae Planehead filefish **
Orange filefish °
Batrachoididae Oyster toadfish ****
Belonidae Atlantic needlefish ****
Houndfish °
Blenniidae Feather blenny ***
Bothidae Fourspot flounder ****
Summer flounder ****
Windowpane ****
Gulf Stream flounder °
Smallmouth flounder °
Carangidae Crevalle jack ****
Atlantic moonfish ***
Lookdown ***
Permit **
Carcharhinidae Bull shark ***
Smooth dogfish ***
Dusky shark **
Sandbar shark **
Catostomidae White sucker ****
Creek chubsucker ****
Shorthead redhorse **
Centrarchidae Red-breast sunfish ****
Pumpkinseed ****
Bluespotted sunfish ***
Banded sunfish °
Chaetodontidae Foureye butterflyfish °
Spotfin butterflyfish °
Clupeidae Hickory shad ****
Alewife ****
American shad ****
Atlantic menhaden ****
Atlantic herring ****
Round herring ****
Blueback herring ***
Congridae Conger eel ****
Cottidae Slimy sculpin ****
Sea raven ****
Grubby ****
Longhorn sculpin ****
Cyclopteridae Lumpfish °
Atlantic seasnail °
Cyprinidae Golden shiner ****
Eastern blacknose dace ****
Bridle shiner ***
Spottail shiner ***
Cutlips minnow **
Eastern silvery minnow **
Common shiner **
Longnose dace **
Creek chub **
Comely shiner °
Bluntnose minnow °
Cyprinodontidae Mummichog ****
Spotfin killifish ****
Dactylopteridae Flying gurnard ***
Echeneidae Sharksucker ***
Elopidae Ladyfish °
Tarpon °
Engraulidae Striped anchovy ****
Bay anchovy ****
Ephippidae Atlantic spadefish °
Esocidae Redfin pickerel ****
Chain pickerel ****
Northern pike °
Fistulariidae Bluespotted cornetfish °
Fundulidae Banded killifish ****
Striped killifish ***
Gadidae Atlantic cod ****
Atlantic tomcod ****
Red hake ****
Spotted hake ****
Pollack ***
Fourbeard rockling **
Silver hake **
White hake °
Gasterosteidae Fourspine stickleback ****
Threespine stickleback ****
Ninespine stickleback ****
Gerreidae Spotfin mjorra **
Gobiidae Naked goby ****
Highfin goby °
Ictaluridae White catfish ****
Brown bullhead ****
Tadpole madtom **
Margined madtom **
Yellow bullhead °
Labridae Tautog ****
Cunner ****
Lophiiformes Goosefish **
Lutjanidae Pigfish ****
Grey snapper ***
Schoolmaster °
Moronidae White perch ****
Striped bass ****
Mugilidae Striped mullet ****
White mullet ****
Odontaspididae Sand tiger **
Ophidiidae Striped cusk-eel ****
Osmeridae Atlantic rainbow smelt ****
Ostraciidae Scrawled cowfish **
Percidae Tessellated darter ****
Yellow perch ****
Petromyzontidae Sea lamprey ****
American brook lamprey ***
Pholidae Rock gunnel ****
Pleuronectidae Winter flounder ****
Yellowtail flounder °
Pomatomidae Bluefish ****
Priacanthidae Short bigeye °
Rachycentridae Cobia °
Rajidae Little skate ****
Barndoor skate °
Salmonidae Brook trout ****
Atlantic salmon **
Sciaenidae Silver perch ****
Weakfish ****
Spot ****
Northern kingfish ****
Black drum ****
Atlantic mackeral ****
Atlantic croaker **
Spanish mackeral **
Serranidae Black sea bass ****
Gag °
Soleidae Hogchoker ****
Sparidae Sheepshead ****
Porgy (Scup) ****
Pinfish ***
Sphyraenidae Guaguanche **
Northern sennet °
Squalidae Spiny dogfish ****
Stromateidae Butterfish ***
Syngnathidae Lined seahorse ****
Northern pipefish ****
Synodontidae Inshore lizardfish **
Tetraodontidae Northern puffer ****
Smooth puffer ***
Striped burrfish °
Thrichiuridae Atlantic cutlassfish **
Triglidae Striped searobin ****
Northern searobin ***
Umbridae Eastern mudminnow ****
Uranoscopidae Northern stargazer °