Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Acanthaceae American water-willow **
Aceraceae boxelder ****
red maple ****
silver maple ****
sugar maple ****
black maple **
striped maple **
Acoraceae sweetflag ****
Alismataceae northern water plantain ****
grassy arrowhead ****
broadleaf arrowhead ****
hooded arrowhead **
awl-leaf arrowhead **
Amaranthaceae tidalmarsh amaranth **
seaside amaranth **
Anacardiaceae fragrant sumac ****
flameleaf sumac ****
eastern poison ivy ****
poison sumac ****
Apiaceae spotted water hemlock ****
eastern grasswort ****
purple meadowparsnip ****
purplestem angelica **
hairy angelica **
bulblet-bearing water hemlock **
Canadian honewort **
rattlesnakemaster **
common cowparsnip **
American marshpennywort **
manyflower marshpennywort **
longstyle sweetroot **
stiff cowbane **
herbwilliam **
Canadian blacksnakeroot **
Maryland sanicle **
hemlock waterparsnip **
yellow pimpernel **
meadow zizia **
golden zizia **
Apocynaceae spreading dogbane ****
Indianhemp ****
Aquifoliaceae smooth winterberry ****
mountain holly ****
common winterberry ****
inkberry **
Araceae green dragon ****
Jack in the pulpit ****
goldenclub ****
Skunk Cabbage ****
green arrow arum **
Araliaceae wild sarsaparilla ****
American spikenard ****
American ginseng ****
bristly sarsaparilla **
dwarf ginseng **
Aristolochiaceae Canadian wildginger **
Asclepiadaceae swamp milkweed ****
purple milkweed ****
common milkweed ****
butterfly milkweed ****
redring milkweed ****
clasping milkweed **
poke milkweed **
fourleaf milkweed **
red milkweed **
whorled milkweed **
green comet milkweed **
Aspleniaceae ebony spleenwort ****
walking fern ****
maidenhair spleenwort ****
wallrue **
Asteraceae annual ragweed ****
great ragweed ****
western pearly everlasting ****
field pussytoes ****
woman’s tobacco ****
eastern baccharis ****
Spanish needles ****
nodding beggartick ****
purplestem beggarticks ****
crowned beggarticks ****
devil’s beggartick ****
Maryland goldenaster ****
yellow thistle ****
swamp thistle ****
pasture thistle ****
Canadian horseweed ****
American burnweed ****
eastern daisy fleabane ****
Philadelphia fleabane ****
prairie fleabane ****
hyssopleaf thoroughwort ****
spotted joepyeweed ****
common boneset ****
sweetscented joepyeweed ****
roundleaf thoroughwort ****
white wood aster ****
bigleaf aster ****
flat-top goldentop ****
slender goldentop ****
thinleaf sunflower ****
giant sunflower ****
queendevil ****
Allegheny hawkweed ****
rough hawkweed ****
rattlesnakeweed ****
flaxleaf whitetop aster ****
Jesuit’s bark ****
tall blue lettuce ****
Canada lettuce ****
devil’s bite ****
climbing hempvine ****
whorled wood aster ****
stiff goldenrod ****
golden ragwort ****
sweetscent ****
tall rattlesnakeroot ****
rabbittobacco ****
narrowleaf whitetop aster ****
white goldenrod ****
Canada goldenrod ****
zigzag goldenrod ****
gray goldenrod ****
anisescented goldenrod ****
roundleaf goldenrod ****
seaside goldenrod ****
showy goldenrod ****
common blue wood aster ****
white heath aster ****
white panicle aster ****
Lowrie’s blue wood aster ****
New England aster ****
New York aster ****
purplestem aster ****
smooth white oldfield aster ****
shore aster ****
New York ironweed ****
trumpetweed ***
Kalm’s hawkweed ***
white snakeroot **
small beggarticks **
smooth beggartick **
threelobe beggarticks **
tall thistle **
field thistle **
blue mistflower **
cornel-leaf whitetop **
parasol whitetop **
robin’s plantain **
white thoroughwort **
justiceweed **
Pine Barren thoroughwort **
low rough aster **
western showy aster **
spoonleaf purple everlasting **
common sneezeweed **
swamp sunflower **
woodland sunflower **
paleleaf woodland sunflower **
smooth oxeye **
Canadian hawkweed **
twoflower dwarfdandelion **
Virginia dwarfdandelion **
woodland lettuce **
hairy lettuce **
dense blazing star **
bog aster **
roundleaf ragwort **
balsam groundsel **
sickleleaf silkgrass **
white rattlesnakeroot **
purple rattlesnakeroot **
cankerweed **
gall of the earth **
cutleaf coneflower **
toothed whitetop aster **
Atlantic goldenrod **
wreath goldenrod **
giant goldenrod **
hairy goldenrod **
early goldenrod **
Elliott’s goldenrod **
downy goldenrod **
wrinkleleaf goldenrod **
stout goldenrod **
bog goldenrod **
elmleaf goldenrod **
rice button aster **
smooth blue aster **
calico aster **
late purple aster **
Pringle’s aster **
willowleaf aster **
eastern annual saltmarsh aster **
perennial saltmarsh aster **
waxyleaf aster **
wingstem **
Azollaceae Carolina mosquitofern **
Balsaminaceae jewelweed ****
pale touch-me-not ****
Berberidaceae blue cohosh ****
mayapple ****
Betulaceae speckled alder ****
hazel alder ****
sweet birch ****
river birch ****
paper birch ****
gray birch ****
yellow birch ****
American hornbeam ****
American hazelnut ****
hophornbeam ****
beaked hazelnut **
Blechnaceae netted chainfern ****
Virginia chainfern ****
Boraginaceae spring forget-me-not ****
wild Job’s tears ****
wild comfrey **
beggarslice **
Virginia bluebells **
bay forget-me-not **
Brassicaceae sicklepod ****
tower rockcress ****
smooth rockcress ****
bulbous bittercress ****
cutleaf toothwort ****
crinkleroot ****
sand bittercress ****
Carolina draba ****
hairy rockcress **
lyrate rockcress **
American searocket **
Pennsylvania bittercress **
cuckoo flower **
bog yellowcress **
Cabombaceae watershield **
Cactaceae devil’s-tongue ****
Callitrichaceae northern water-starwort ****
twoheaded water-starwort **
vernal water-starwort **
terrestrial water-starwort **
Campanulaceae cardinalflower ****
Indian-tobacco ****
Ontario lobelia ****
Nuttall’s lobelia ****
great blue lobelia ****
palespike lobelia ****
clasping Venus’ looking-glass ****
marsh bellflower **
American bellflower **
Capparaceae redwhisker clammyweed **
Caprifoliaceae northern bush honeysuckle ****
limber honeysuckle ****
trumpet honeysuckle ****
common elderberry ****
feverwort ****
mapleleaf viburnum ****
southern arrowwood ****
hobblebush ****
blackhaw ****
orangefruit horse-gentian ***
twinflower **
red elderberry **
nannyberry **
possumhaw **
Caryophyllaceae seaside sandplant ****
sleepy silene ****
Pennsylvania catchfly ****
widowsfrill ****
nodding chickweed **
pinebarren stitchwort **
bluntleaf sandwort **
smooth forked nailwort **
trailing pearlwort **
bog chickweed **
longleaf starwort **
Celastraceae American bittersweet ****
strawberry bush ****
eastern wahoo **
running strawberry bush **
Ceratophyllaceae coon’s tail **
spineless hornwort **
Chenopodiaceae crested saltbush ****
mapleleaf goosefoot ****
chickenclaws ****
red goosefoot **
Standley’s goosefoot **
dwarf saltwort **
annual seepweed **
Cistaceae hairy pinweed ****
Illinois pinweed ****
hoary frostweed **
longbranch frostweed **
pinebarren goldenheather **
woolly beachheather **
largepod pinweed **
beach pinweed **
thymeleaf pinweed **
Leggett’s pinweed **
narrowleaf pinweed **
Clethraceae coastal sweetpepperbush ****
Clusiaceae lesser Canadian St. Johnswort ****
spotted St. Johnswort ****
Virginia marsh St. Johnswort ****
pale St. Johnswort **
orangegrass **
large St. Johnswort **
dwarf St. Johnswort **
Commelinaceae whitemouth dayflower ****
Convolvulaceae low false bindweed ****
man of the earth ****
Cornaceae alternateleaf dogwood ****
silky dogwood ****
stiff dogwood ****
flowering dogwood ****
gray dogwood ****
roundleaf dogwood ****
redosier dogwood ****
bunchberry dogwood **
Crassulaceae ditch stonecrop ****
Cucurbitaceae wild cucumber ****
oneseed burr cucumber ****
Cupressaceae Atlantic white cedar ****
eastern redcedar ****
common juniper **
Cuscutaceae scaldweed ****
fiveangled dodder ***
buttonbush dodder **
compact dodder **
hazel dodder **
Cyperaceae densetuft hairsedge ****
thicket sedge ****
Emmons’ sedge ****
oval-leaf sedge ****
bristleleaf sedge ****
Hitchcock’s sedge ****
hop sedge ****
Muhlenberg’s sedge ****
Pennsylvania sedge ****
broadleaf sedge ****
Schweinitz’s sedge ****
squarrose sedge ****
parasol sedge ****
fox sedge ****
globe flatsedge ****
Great Plains flatsedge ****
fragrant flatsedge ****
bearded flatsedge ****
strawcolored flatsedge ****
threeway sedge ****
elliptic spikerush ****
bald spikerush ****
dwarf spikerush ****
beaked spikerush ****
hairy umbrella-sedge ****
white beaksedge ****
brownish beaksedge ****
chairmaker’s bulrush ****
river bulrush ****
softstem bulrush ****
woodland bulrush ****
whip nutrush ****
bashful bulrush ****
thinleaf sedge ***
New England bulrush ***
panicled bulrush ***
broadwing sedge **
greenwhite sedge **
white bear sedge **
eastern narrowleaf sedge **
yellowfruit sedge **
water sedge **
hay sedge **
prickly bog sedge **
Barratt’s sedge **
eastern woodland sedge **
bromelike sedge **
button sedge **
Bush’s sedge **
Buxbaum’s sedge **
silvery sedge **
fibrousroot sedge **
longhair sedge **
hirsute sedge **
openfield sedge **
fringed sedge **
white edge sedge **
slender woodland sedge **
softleaf sedge **
star sedge **
thinfruit sedge **
dryspike sedge **
northern long sedge **
graceful sedge **
limestone meadow sedge **
Gray’s sedge **
nodding sedge **
fuzzy wuzzy sedge **
pubescent sedge **
bottlebrush sedge **
greater bladder sedge **
spreading sedge **
broad looseflower sedge **
bristlystalked sedge **
false hop sedge **
shallow sedge **
black edge sedge **
greater straw sedge **
pale sedge **
woolly sedge **
variable sedge **
drooping sedge **
cypresslike sedge **
reflexed sedge **
knotsheath sedge **
rosy sedge **
eastern rough sedge **
broom sedge **
beach sedge **
burr reed sedge **
dioecious sedge **
owlfruit sedge **
eastern straw sedge **
upright sedge **
bent sedge **
Swan’s sedge **
rigid sedge **
blunt broom sedge **
hairyfruit sedge **
threeseeded sedge **
velvet sedge **
ribbed sedge **
Willdenow’s sedge **
smooth sawgrass **
slender flatsedge **
toothed flatsedge **
umbrella flatsedge **
redroot flatsedge **
yellow flatsedge **
Gray’s flatsedge **
needle spikerush **
Engelmann’s spikerush **
blackfruit spikerush **
blunt spikerush **
bright green spikerush **
ovate spikerush **
common spikerush **
squarestem spikerush **
cone-cup spikerush **
slender cottongrass **
tawny cottongrass **
slender fimbry **
marsh fimbry **
brown beaksedge **
common threesquare **
weakstalk bulrush **
sturdy bulrush **
Torrey’s bulrush **
woolgrass **
rufous bulrush **
leafy bulrush **
netted nutrush **
low nutrush **
Dennstaedtiaceae eastern hayscented fern ****
western brackenfern ****
Dioscoreaceae wild yam ****
Droseraceae threadleaf sundew **
spoonleaf sundew **
roundleaf sundew **
Dryopteridaceae common ladyfern ****
bulblet bladderfern ****
brittle bladderfern ****
silver false spleenwort ****
spinulose woodfern ****
crested woodfern ****
intermediate woodfern ****
marginal woodfern ****
ostrich fern ****
sensitive fern ****
Christmas fern ****
rusty woodsia ****
bluntlobe cliff fern ****
mountain woodfern **
Clinton’s woodfern **
Goldie’s woodfern **
western oakfern **
Ebenaceae common persimmon ****
Elatinaceae American waterwort **
Equisetaceae field horsetail ****
scouringrush horsetail ****
water horsetail **
woodland horsetail **
Ericaceae creeping snowberry ****
eastern teaberry ****
black huckleberry ****
blue huckleberry ****
mountain laurel ****
swamp doghobble ****
maleberry ****
piedmont staggerbush ****
swamp azalea ****
lowbush blueberry ****
highbush blueberry ****
cranberry ****
Blue Ridge blueberry ****
deerberry ****
kinnikinnick **
leatherleaf **
trailing arbutus **
dwarf huckleberry **
sheep laurel **
rhodora **
great laurel **
Eriocaulaceae sevenangle pipewort **
Euphorbiaceae slender threeseed mercury ****
Virginia threeseed mercury ****
spotted sandmat ****
eyebane ****
seaside sandmat ****
wormseed sandmat ***
ribseed sandmat **
flowering spurge **
American ipecac **
Fabaceae American hogpeanut ****
groundnut ****
eastern redbud ****
sleepingplant ****
partridge pea ****
arrowhead rattlebox ****
showy ticktrefoil ****
hoary ticktrefoil ****
Dillenius’ ticktrefoil ****
smooth ticktrefoil ****
smooth small-leaf ticktrefoil ****
nakedflower ticktrefoil ****
Nuttall’s ticktrefoil ****
stiff ticktrefoil ****
panicledleaf ticktrefoil ****
prostrate ticktrefoil ****
downy milkpea ****
marsh pea ****
roundhead lespedeza ****
hairy lespedeza ****
trailing lespedeza ****
violet lespedeza ****
thicket bean ****
trailing fuzzybean ****
Carolina vetch ****
horseflyweed **
Atlantic pigeonwings **
hairy small-leaf ticktrefoil **
largebract ticktrefoil **
pointedleaf ticktrefoil **
beach pea **
narrowleaf lespedeza **
creeping lespedeza **
tall lespedeza **
sundial lupine **
American senna **
pink fuzzybean **
Virginia tephrosia **
Fagaceae American chestnut ****
American beech ****
white oak ****
swamp white oak ****
scarlet oak ****
bur oak ****
pin oak ****
dwarf chinkapin oak ****
chestnut oak ****
northern red oak ****
post oak ****
black oak ****
blackjack oak **
willow oak **
Fumariaceae rock harlequin ****
dutchman’s breeches ****
yellow fumewort **
squirrel corn **
Gentianaceae twining screwstem ****
closed bottle gentian ****
harvestbells ****
greater fringed gentian ****
rosepink ****
slender rose gentian ****
marsh rose gentian ****
yellow screwstem **
rose of Plymouth **
Geraniaceae Carolina geranium ****
spotted geranium ****
Grossulariaceae American black currant ****
eastern prickly gooseberry **
hairystem gooseberry **
Appalachian gooseberry **
Haloragaceae marsh mermaidweed ****
low watermilfoil **
cutleaf watermilfoil **
slender watermilfoil **
Hamamelidaceae American witchhazel ****
sweetgum ****
Hydrangeaceae wild hydrangea **
Hydrocharitaceae Canadian waterweed **
American eelgrass **
Hydrophyllaceae bluntleaf waterleaf ****
Shawnee salad **
Iridaceae common goldstar ****
harlequin blueflag ****
narrowleaf blue-eyed grass ****
slender blue iris **
eastern blue-eyed grass **
coastalplain blue-eyed grass **
needletip blue-eyed grass **
Isoetaceae Appalachian quillwort **
shore quillwort **
Juglandaceae mockernut hickory ****
bitternut hickory ****
pignut hickory ****
shellbark hickory ****
red hickory ****
shagbark hickory ****
butternut ****
black walnut ****
Juncaceae tapertip rush ****
jointleaf rush ****
common rush ****
saltmeadow rush ****
grassleaf rush ****
knotted rush ****
poverty rush ****
Torrey’s rush ****
Baltic rush **
bog rush **
toad rush **
Canadian rush **
weak rush **
forked rush **
brownfruit rush **
needlepod rush **
lopsided rush **
hairy woodrush **
Juncaginaceae seaside arrowgrass ****
Lamiaceae yellow giant hyssop ****
richweed ****
northern bugleweed ****
basil mountainmint ****
hoary mountainmint ****
clustered mountainmint ****
narrowleaf mountainmint ****
Torrey’s mountainmint ****
Virginia mountainmint ****
lyreleaf sage ****
hairy skullcap ****
marsh skullcap ****
blue skullcap ****
hyssopleaf hedgenettle ****
smooth hedgenettle ****
Canada germander ****
forked bluecurls ****
purple giant hyssop **
common dittany **
American false pennyroyal **
American water horehound **
clasping water horehound **
taperleaf water horehound **
Virginia water horehound **
scarlet beebalm **
wild bergamot **
spotted beebalm **
whorled mountainmint **
helmet flower **
marsh hedgenettle **
narrowleaf bluecurls **
Lauraceae northern spicebush ****
sassafras ****
Lemnaceae common duckweed ****
minute duckweed **
star duckweed **
valdivia duckweed **
common duckmeat **
Columbian watermeal **
Lentibulariaceae hiddenfruit bladderwort **
humped bladderwort **
common bladderwort **
lesser bladderwort **
eastern purple bladderwort **
striped bladderwort **
Liliaceae white colicroot ****
meadow garlic ****
fairywand ****
dogtooth violet ****
Canada lily ****
wood lily ****
turk’s-cap lily ****
Canada mayflower ****
feathery false lily of the vally ****
Indian cucumber ****
hairy Solomon’s seal ****
red trillium ****
perfoliate bellwort ****
sessileleaf bellwort ****
green false hellebore ****
wild leek **
flypoison **
white fawnlily **
swamppink **
starry false lily of the vally **
slender bunchflower **
Virginia bunchflower **
smooth Solomon’s seal **
whip-poor-will flower **
painted trillium **
pinebarren deathcamas **
Limnanthaceae false mermaidweed **
Linaceae woodland flax ****
ridged yellow flax **
grooved flax **
Lycopodiaceae shining clubmoss ****
groundcedar ****
rare clubmoss ****
foxtail clubmoss **
slender clubmoss **
inundated clubmoss **
stiff clubmoss **
running clubmoss **
Lygodiaceae American climbing fern **
Lythraceae blue waxweed ****
swamp loosestrife **
winged lythrum **
lowland rotala **
Magnoliaceae Tuliptree ****
cucumber-tree ***
sweetbay **
Malvaceae crimsoneyed rosemallow ****
Melastomataceae handsome Harry ****
Menispermaceae common moonseed ****
Monotropaceae pinesap ****
Indianpipe ****
Moraceae red mulberry ****
Myricaceae sweet fern ****
northern bayberry ****
sweetgale **
Najadaceae nodding waternymph **
Nymphaeaceae yellow pond-lily ****
American white waterlily ****
Nyssaceae blackgum ****
Oleaceae white ash ****
black ash ****
green ash ****
Onagraceae purpleleaf willowherb ****
bog willowherb ****
marsh willowherb ****
seedbox ****
marsh seedbox ****
common evening-primrose ****
northern evening-primrose ****
cutleaf evening-primrose ***
fireweed **
downy willowherb **
globefruit primrose-willow **
narrowleaf evening-primrose **
little evening-primrose **
Ophioglossaceae cutleaf grapefern ****
rattlesnake fern ****
northern adderstongue ****
lanceleaf grapefern **
matricary grapefern **
leathery grapefern **
little grapefern **
Orchidaceae summer coralroot ****
autumn coralroot ****
moccasin flower ****
lesser yellow lady’s slipper ****
showy orchid ****
downy rattlesnake plantain ****
brown widelip orchid ****
yellow widelip orchid ****
yellow fringed orchid ****
palegreen orchid ****
green fringed orchid ****
nodding ladies’-tresses ****
northern slender ladies’-tresses ****
crippled cranefly ****
threebirds ****
Adam and Eve **
dragon’s mouth **
tuberous grasspink **
longbract frog orchid **
showy lady’s slipper **
purple fiveleaf orchid **
heartleaf twayblade **
green adder’s-mouth orchid **
white fringed orchid **
small green wood orchid **
scentbottle **
lesser purple fringed orchid **
snakemouth orchid **
little ladies’-tresses **
spring ladies’-tresses **
Orobanchaceae American squawroot ****
beechdrops ****
oneflowered broomrape ****
Osmundaceae cinnamon fern ****
interrupted fern ****
royal fern ****
Oxalidaceae mountain woodsorrel ****
common yellow oxalis ****
violet woodsorrel ****
Papaveraceae bloodroot ****
Phytolaccaceae American pokeweed ****
Pinaceae tamarack ****
black spruce ****
red pine ****
pitch pine ****
eastern white pine ****
eastern hemlock ****
balsam fir **
shortleaf pine **
Virginia pine **
Plantaginaceae heartleaf plantain ****
goose tongue ****
dwarf plantain ***
blackseed plantain **
Virginia plantain **
Platanaceae American sycamore ****
Plumbaginaceae Carolina sealavender ****
Poaceae winter bentgrass ****
upland bentgrass ****
American beachgrass ****
bushy bluestem ****
broomsedge bluestem ****
slimspike threeawn ****
fringed brome ****
hairy woodland brome ****
mat sandbur ****
sanddune sandbur ****
sweet woodreed ****
flattened oatgrass ****
poverty oatgrass ****
wavy hairgrass ****
deertongue ****
starved panicgrass ****
velvet panicum ****
inland saltgrass ****
Canada wildrye ****
eastern bottlebrush grass ****
Virginia wildrye ****
lace grass ****
teal lovegrass ****
tufted lovegrass ****
red fescue ****
creeping mannagrass ****
rattlesnake mannagrass ****
vanilla grass ****
whitegrass ****
nimblewill ****
rock muhly ****
witchgrass ****
warty panicgrass ****
switchgrass ****
thin paspalum ****
common reed ****
little bluestem ****
smooth cordgrass ****
big cordgrass ****
shiny wedgescale ****
prairie wedgescale ****
swamp wedgescale ****
composite dropseed ****
pale false mannagrass ****
purpletop tridens ****
purple sandgrass ****
eastern gamagrass ****
sixweeks fescue ****
tapered rosette grass ***
variable panicgrass ***
slimleaf panicgrass ***
roundseed panicgrass ***
wirestem muhly ***
prairie cordgrass ***
puffsheath dropseed ***
rough bentgrass **
creeping bentgrass **
big bluestem **
churchmouse threeawn **
arrowfeather threeawn **
seaside threeawn **
bearded shorthusk **
bluejoint **
arctic reedgrass **
slender woodoats **
tufted hairgrass **
Bosc’s panicgrass **
broadleaf rosette grass **
Heller’s rosette grass **
Addison’s rosette grass **
hairy wildrye **
purple lovegrass **
American mannagrass **
Atlantic mannagrass **
floating mannagrass **
fowl mannagrass **
rice cutgrass **
bearded sprangletop **
Mexican muhly **
woodland muhly **
slender muhly **
bitter panicgrass **
redtop panicgrass **
field paspalum **
blackseed speargrass **
grove bluegrass **
fowl bluegrass **
woodland bluegrass **
saltmarsh alkaligrass **
shore little bluestem **
marsh bristlegrass **
Indiangrass **
saltmeadow cordgrass **
slender wedgescale **
poverty dropseed **
annual wildrice **
Polemoniaceae wild blue phlox **
moss phlox **
Greek valerian **
Polygalaceae procession flower ****
purple milkwort ****
whorled milkwort ****
whorled milkwort **
drumheads **
orange milkwort **
Nuttall’s milkwort **
gaywings **
racemed milkwort **
Polygonaceae Pennsylvania smartweed ****
water knotweed ****
halberdleaf tearthumb ****
Carey’s smartweed ****
erect knotweed ****
swamp smartweed ****
dotted smartweed ****
bushy knotweed ****
arrowleaf tearthumb ****
climbing false buckwheat ****
pleatleaf knotweed ****
jumpseed ****
greater water dock ****
coastal jointweed **
fringed black bindweed **
seaside knotweed **
pale dock **
heartwing sorrel **
golden dock **
swamp dock **
Polypodiaceae rock polypody ****
Pontederiaceae grassleaf mudplantain **
pickerelweed **
Portulacaceae Virginia springbeauty ****
Carolina springbeauty **
Potamogetonaceae largeleaf pondweed **
waterthread pondweed **
variableleaf pondweed **
floating pondweed **
longleaf pondweed **
claspingleaf pondweed **
spotted pondweed **
small pondweed **
spiral pondweed **
flatstem pondweed **
sago pondweed **
Primulaceae fringed loosestrife ****
earth loosestrife ****
tufted loosestrife ****
starflower ****
American featherfoil **
lowland yellow loosestrife **
whorled yellow loosestrife **
seaside brookweed **
Pteridaceae northern maidenhair ****
hairy lipfern ****
purple cliffbrake ****
Pyrolaceae striped prince’s pine ****
pipsissewa ****
American wintergreen ****
sidebells wintergreen **
waxflower shinleaf **
Ranunculaceae white baneberry ****
red baneberry ****
Canadian anemone ****
candle anemone ****
nightcaps ****
tall thimbleweed ****
red columbine ****
yellow marsh marigold ****
black bugbane ****
devil’s darning needles ****
roundlobe hepatica ****
littleleaf buttercup ****
greater creeping spearwort ****
Pennsylvania buttercup ****
low spearwort ****
blisterwort ****
cursed buttercup ****
purple meadow-rue ****
early meadow-rue ****
rue anemone ****
curlyheads **
threeleaf goldthread **
waterplantain spearwort **
alkali buttercup **
early buttercup **
yellow water buttercup **
bristly buttercup **
rock buttercup **
threadleaf crowfoot **
king of the meadow **
waxyleaf meadow-rue **
American globeflower **
Rhamnaceae New Jersey tea ****
Rosaceae harvestlice ****
Canadian serviceberry ****
cockspur hawthorn ****
scarlet hawthorn ****
waxyfruit hawthorn ****
shrubby cinquefoil ****
Virginia strawberry ****
spring avens ****
cream avens ****
sweet crabapple ****
black chokeberry ****
red chokeberry ****
dwarf cinquefoil ****
Norwegian cinquefoil ****
common cinquefoil ****
beach plum ****
pin cherry ****
black cherry ****
chokecherry ****
Carolina rose ****
swamp rose ****
Virginia rose ****
Allegheny blackberry ****
smooth blackberry ****
sand blackberry ****
northern dewberry ****
bristly dewberry ****
black raspberry ****
purpleflowering raspberry ****
American mountain ash ****
steeplebush ****
common serviceberry ***
running serviceberry ***
Copenhagen hawthorn ***
tall hairy agrimony **
soft agrimony **
silverweed cinquefoil **
purple chokeberry **
dwarf hawthorn **
yellow avens **
white avens **
common ninebark **
American plum **
sandcherry **
climbing rose **
grayleaf red raspberry **
Pennsylvania blackberry **
Canadian burnet **
white meadowsweet **
Rubiaceae common buttonbush ****
rough bedstraw ****
northern bedstraw ****
lanceleaf wild licorice ****
fragrant bedstraw ****
partridgeberry ****
clustered mille graines ****
common marsh bedstraw ***
poorjoe **
stickywilly **
licorice bedstraw **
hairy bedstraw **
stiff marsh bedstraw **
threepetal bedstraw **
azure bluet **
longleaf summer bluet **
Ruppiaceae widgeongrass **
Rutaceae common hoptree ****
common pricklyash **
Salicaceae balsam poplar ****
bigtooth aspen ****
swamp cottonwood ****
quaking aspen ****
sageleaf willow ****
pussy willow ****
Missouri River willow ****
prairie willow ****
black willow ****
silky willow ****
eastern cottonwood ***
Bebb willow **
heartleaf willow **
narrowleaf willow **
meadow willow **
Santalaceae bastard toadflax **
Sarraceniaceae purple pitcherplant **
Saururaceae lizard’s tail ****
Saxifragaceae American golden saxifrage ****
fen grass of Parnassus ****
eastern swamp saxifrage ****
early saxifrage ****
American alumroot **
twoleaf miterwort **
heartleaf foamflower **
Schizaeaceae little curlygrass fern **
Scrophulariaceae saltmarsh false foxglove ****
smallflower false foxglove ****
purple false foxglove ****
slenderleaf false foxglove ****
smooth yellow false foxglove ****
downy yellow false foxglove ****
white turtlehead ****
yellowseed false pimpernel ****
sharpwing monkeyflower ****
Allegheny monkeyflower ****
Canadian lousewort ****
swamp lousewort ****
carpenter’s square ****
Culver’s root ****
fernleaf yellow false foxglove **
scarlet Indian paintbrush **
golden hedgehyssop **
clammy hedgehyssop **
Welsh mudwort **
narrowleaf cowwheat **
hairy beardtongue **
lanceleaf figwort **
American speedwell **
neckweed **
skullcap speedwell **
Selaginellaceae meadow spikemoss ****
northern selaginella ****
Smilacaceae cat greenbrier ****
smooth carrionflower ****
roundleaf greenbrier ****
Solanaceae clammy groundcherry ****
Virginia groundcherry ****
longleaf groundcherry ***
husk tomato **
Sparganiaceae branched bur-reed ****
American bur-reed **
broadfruit bur-reed **
Staphyleaceae American bladdernut ****
Taxaceae Canada yew ****
Thelypteridaceae long beechfern ****
broad beechfern ****
New York fern ****
eastern marsh fern ****
bog fern **
Thymelaeaceae eastern leatherwood ****
Tiliaceae American basswood ****
Typhaceae broadleaf cattail ****
Ulmaceae common hackberry ****
American elm ****
slippery elm ****
Urticaceae smallspike false nettle ****
Canadian woodnettle ****
Pennsylvania pellitory ****
Canadian clearweed ****
California nettle **
Verbenaceae American lopseed ****
swamp verbena ****
narrowleaf vervain ****
white vervain ****
Violaceae marsh blue violet ****
bog white violet ****
early blue violet ****
birdfoot violet ****
downy yellow violet ****
arrowleaf violet ****
common blue violet ****
sand violet **
sweet white violet **
Canadian white violet **
American dog violet **
smooth white violet **
roundleaf yellow violet **
striped cream violet **
Viscaceae oak mistletoe **
Vitaceae Virginia creeper ****
summer grape ****
fox grape ****
riverbank grape ****
Xyridaceae bog yelloweyed grass **
slender yelloweyed grass **
Zannichelliaceae horned pondweed **
Zosteraceae seawrack ****