Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Acanthaceae American water-willow Justicia americana (L.)Vahl **
Aceraceae boxelder Acer negundo L. ****
red maple Acer rubrum L. ****
silver maple Acer saccharinum L. ****
sugar maple Acer saccharum Marsh. ****
black maple Acer nigrum Michx.f. **
striped maple Acer pensylvanicum L. **
Acoraceae sweetflag Acorus americanus (Raf.)Raf. ****
Alismataceae northern water plantain Alisma triviale Pursh ****
grassy arrowhead Sagittaria graminea Michx. ****
broadleaf arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia Willd. ****
hooded arrowhead Sagittaria calycina Engelm. **
awl-leaf arrowhead Sagittaria subulata (L.)Buch. **
Amaranthaceae tidalmarsh amaranth Amaranthus cannabinus (L.)Sauer **
seaside amaranth Amaranthus pumilus Raf. **
Anacardiaceae fragrant sumac Rhus aromatica Ait. ****
flameleaf sumac Rhus copallinum L. ****
eastern poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans (L.)Kuntze ****
poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix (L.)Kuntze ****
Apiaceae spotted water hemlock Cicuta maculata L. ****
eastern grasswort Lilaeopsis chinensis (L.)Kuntze ****
purple meadowparsnip Thaspium trifoliatum (L.)Grayvar.aureumBritt. ****
purplestem angelica Angelica atropurpurea L. **
hairy angelica Angelica venenosa (Greenway)Fern. **
bulblet-bearing water hemlock Cicuta bulbifera L. **
Canadian honewort Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.)DC. **
rattlesnakemaster Eryngium aquaticum L. **
common cowparsnip Heracleum maximum Bartr. **
American marshpennywort Hydrocotyle americana L. **
manyflower marshpennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata L. **
longstyle sweetroot Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr.)DC. **
stiff cowbane Oxypolis rigidior (L.)Raf. **
herbwilliam Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.)Raf. **
Canadian blacksnakeroot Sanicula canadensis L. **
Maryland sanicle Sanicula marilandica L. **
hemlock waterparsnip Sium suave Walt. **
yellow pimpernel Taenidia integerrima (L.)Drude **
meadow zizia Zizia aptera (Gray)Fern. **
golden zizia Zizia aurea (L.)W.D.J.Koch **
Apocynaceae spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium L. ****
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum L. ****
Aquifoliaceae smooth winterberry Ilex laevigata (Pursh)Gray ****
mountain holly Ilex montana Torr.&GrayexGray ****
common winterberry Ilex verticillata (L.)Gray ****
inkberry Ilex glabra (L.)Gray **
Araceae green dragon Arisaema dracontium (L.)Schott ****
Jack in the pulpit Arisaema triphyllum (L.)Schott ****
goldenclub Orontium aquaticum L. ****
Skunk Cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus ****
green arrow arum Peltandra virginica (L.)Schott **
Araliaceae wild sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis L. ****
American spikenard Aralia racemosa L. ****
American ginseng Panax quinquefolius L. ****
bristly sarsaparilla Aralia hispida Vent. **
dwarf ginseng Panax trifolius L. **
Aristolochiaceae Canadian wildginger Asarum canadense L. **
Asclepiadaceae swamp milkweed Asclepias incarnata L. ****
purple milkweed Asclepias purpurascens L. ****
common milkweed Asclepias syriaca L. ****
butterfly milkweed Asclepias tuberosa L. ****
redring milkweed Asclepias variegata L. ****
clasping milkweed Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. **
poke milkweed Asclepias exaltata L. **
fourleaf milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. **
red milkweed Asclepias rubra L. **
whorled milkweed Asclepias verticillata L. **
green comet milkweed Asclepias viridiflora Raf. **
Aspleniaceae ebony spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron (L.)B.S.P. ****
walking fern Asplenium rhizophyllum L. ****
maidenhair spleenwort Asplenium trichomanes L. ****
wallrue Asplenium ruta-muraria L. **
Asteraceae annual ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. ****
great ragweed Ambrosia trifida L. ****
western pearly everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea (L.)Benth. ****
field pussytoes Antennaria neglecta Greene ****
woman’s tobacco Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.)Richards. ****
eastern baccharis Baccharis halimifolia L. ****
Spanish needles Bidens bipinnata L. ****
nodding beggartick Bidens cernua L. ****
purplestem beggarticks Bidens connata Muhl.exWilld. ****
crowned beggarticks Bidens coronata (L.)Britt. ****
devil’s beggartick Bidens frondosa L. ****
Maryland goldenaster Chrysopsis mariana (L.)Ell. ****
yellow thistle Cirsium horridulum Michx. ****
swamp thistle Cirsium muticum Michx. ****
pasture thistle Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.)Spreng. ****
Canadian horseweed Conyza canadensis (L.)Cronq. ****
American burnweed Erechtites hieraciifolius (L.) Raf. ex DC. ****
eastern daisy fleabane Erigeron annuus (L.)Pers. ****
Philadelphia fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus L. ****
prairie fleabane Erigeron strigosus Muhl.exWilld. ****
hyssopleaf thoroughwort Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. ****
spotted joepyeweed Eupatorium maculatum L. ****
common boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum L. ****
sweetscented joepyeweed Eupatorium purpureum L. ****
roundleaf thoroughwort Eupatorium rotundifolium L. ****
white wood aster Eurybia divaricata (L.)Nesom ****
bigleaf aster Eurybia macrophylla (L.)Cass. ****
flat-top goldentop Euthamia graminifolia (L.)Nutt. ****
slender goldentop Euthamia tenuifolia (Pursh)Nutt. ****
thinleaf sunflower Helianthus decapetalus L. ****
giant sunflower Helianthus giganteus L. ****
queendevil Hieracium gronovii L. ****
Allegheny hawkweed Hieracium paniculatum L. ****
rough hawkweed Hieracium scabrum Michx. ****
rattlesnakeweed Hieracium venosum L. ****
flaxleaf whitetop aster Ionactis linariifolius (L.)Greene ****
Jesuit’s bark Iva frutescens L. ****
tall blue lettuce Lactuca biennis (Moench)Fern. ****
Canada lettuce Lactuca canadensis L. ****
devil’s bite Liatris scariosa (L.)Willd. ****
climbing hempvine Mikania scandens (L.)Willd. ****
whorled wood aster Oclemena acuminata (Michx.)Greene ****
stiff goldenrod Oligoneuron rigidum (L.)Smallvar.rigidum ****
golden ragwort Packera aurea (L.)A.&D.Löve ****
sweetscent Pluchea odorata (L.)Cass. ****
tall rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes altissima L. ****
rabbittobacco Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.)Hilliard&Burtt ****
narrowleaf whitetop aster Sericocarpus linifolius (L.)B.S.P. ****
white goldenrod Solidago bicolor L. ****
Canada goldenrod Solidago canadensis L. ****
zigzag goldenrod Solidago flexicaulis L. ****
gray goldenrod Solidago nemoralis Ait. ****
anisescented goldenrod Solidago odora Ait. ****
roundleaf goldenrod Solidago patula Muhl.exWilld. ****
seaside goldenrod Solidago sempervirens L. ****
showy goldenrod Solidago speciosa Nutt. ****
common blue wood aster Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.)Nesom ****
white heath aster Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.)Nesomvar.ericoides ****
white panicle aster Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.)Nesomssp.lanceolatumvar.lanceolatum ****
Lowrie’s blue wood aster Symphyotrichum lowrieanum (Porter)Nesom ****
New England aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.)Nesom ****
New York aster Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.)Nesom ****
purplestem aster Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.)A.&D.Lövevar.puniceum ****
smooth white oldfield aster Symphyotrichum racemosum (Ell.)Nesom ****
shore aster Symphyotrichum tradescantii (L.)Nesom ****
New York ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis (L.)Michx. ****
trumpetweed Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt ***
Kalm’s hawkweed Hieracium kalmii L. ***
white snakeroot Ageratina altissima (L.)King&H.E.Robins. **
small beggarticks Bidens discoidea (Torr.&Gray)Britt. **
smooth beggartick Bidens laevis (L.)B.S.P. **
threelobe beggarticks Bidens tripartita L. **
tall thistle Cirsium altissimum (L.)Hill **
field thistle Cirsium discolor (Muhl.exWilld.)Spreng. **
blue mistflower Conoclinium coelestinum (L.)DC. **
cornel-leaf whitetop Doellingeria infirma (Michx.)Greene **
parasol whitetop Doellingeria umbellata (P.Mill.)Neesvar.umbellata **
robin’s plantain Erigeron pulchellus Michx. **
white thoroughwort Eupatorium album L. **
justiceweed Eupatorium leucolepis (DC.)Torr.&Gray **
Pine Barren thoroughwort Eupatorium resinosum Torr.exDC. **
low rough aster Eurybia radula (Ait.)Nesom **
western showy aster Eurybia spectabilis (Ait.)Nesom **
spoonleaf purple everlasting Gamochaeta purpurea (L.)Cabrera **
common sneezeweed Helenium autumnale L. **
swamp sunflower Helianthus angustifolius L. **
woodland sunflower Helianthus divaricatus L. **
paleleaf woodland sunflower Helianthus strumosus L. **
smooth oxeye Heliopsis helianthoides (L.)Sweet **
Canadian hawkweed Hieracium canadense Michx. **
twoflower dwarfdandelion Krigia biflora (Walt.)Blake **
Virginia dwarfdandelion Krigia virginica (L.)Willd. **
woodland lettuce Lactuca floridana (L.)Gaertn. **
hairy lettuce Lactuca hirsuta Muhl.exNutt. **
dense blazing star Liatris spicata (L.)Willd. **
bog aster Oclemena nemoralis (Ait.)Greene **
roundleaf ragwort Packera obovata (Muhl.exWilld.)W.A.Weber&A.Löve **
balsam groundsel Packera paupercula (Michx.)A.&D.Löve **
sickleleaf silkgrass Pityopsis falcata (Pursh)Nutt. **
white rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes alba L. **
purple rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes racemosa Michx. **
cankerweed Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh **
gall of the earth Prenanthes trifoliolata (Cass.)Fern. **
cutleaf coneflower Rudbeckia laciniata L. **
toothed whitetop aster Sericocarpus asteroides (L.)B.S.P. **
Atlantic goldenrod Solidago arguta Ait. **
wreath goldenrod Solidago caesia L. **
giant goldenrod Solidago gigantea Ait. **
hairy goldenrod Solidago hispida Muhl.exWilld. **
early goldenrod Solidago juncea Ait. **
Elliott’s goldenrod Solidago latissimifolia P.Mill. **
downy goldenrod Solidago puberula Nutt. **
wrinkleleaf goldenrod Solidago rugosa P.Mill. **
stout goldenrod Solidago squarrosa Nutt. **
bog goldenrod Solidago uliginosa Nutt. **
elmleaf goldenrod Solidago ulmifolia Muhl.exWilld. **
rice button aster Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.)Nesomvar.dumosum **
smooth blue aster Symphyotrichum laeve (L.)A.&D.Lövevar.laeve **
calico aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.)A.&D.Löve **
late purple aster Symphyotrichum patens (Ait.)Nesom **
Pringle’s aster Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.)Nesomvar.pringlei(Gray)Nesom **
willowleaf aster Symphyotrichum praealtum (Poir.)Nesomvar.praealtum **
eastern annual saltmarsh aster Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.)Nesom **
perennial saltmarsh aster Symphyotrichum tenuifolium (L.)Nesom **
waxyleaf aster Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.)Nesom **
wingstem Verbesina alternifolia (L.)Britt.exKearney **
Azollaceae Carolina mosquitofern Azolla caroliniana Willd. **
Balsaminaceae jewelweed Impatiens capensis Meerb. ****
pale touch-me-not Impatiens pallida Nutt. ****
Berberidaceae blue cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.)Michx. ****
mayapple Podophyllum peltatum L. ****
Betulaceae speckled alder Alnus incana (L.)Moenchssp.rugosa(DuRoi)Clausen ****
hazel alder Alnus serrulata (Ait.)Willd. ****
sweet birch Bartonia virginica (L.)B.S.P. ****
river birch Betula alleghaniensis Britt. ****
paper birch Betula lenta L. ****
gray birch Betula nigra L. ****
yellow birch Betula populifolia Marsh. ****
American hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana Walt. ****
American hazelnut Corylus americana Walt. ****
hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana (P.Mill.)K.Koch ****
beaked hazelnut Corylus cornuta Marsh. **
Blechnaceae netted chainfern Woodwardia areolata (L.)T.Moore ****
Virginia chainfern Woodwardia virginica (L.)Sm. ****
Boraginaceae spring forget-me-not Myosotis verna Nutt. ****
wild Job’s tears Onosmodium virginianum (L.)A.DC. ****
wild comfrey Cynoglossum virginianum L. **
beggarslice Hackelia virginiana (L.)I.M.Johnston **
Virginia bluebells Mertensia virginica (L.)Pers.exLink **
bay forget-me-not Myosotis laxa Lehm. **
Brassicaceae sicklepod Arabis canadensis L. ****
tower rockcress Arabis glabra (L.)Bernh. ****
smooth rockcress Arabis laevigata (Muhl.exWilld.)Poir. ****
bulbous bittercress Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.exMuhl.)B.S.P. ****
cutleaf toothwort Cardamine concatenata (Michx.)Sw. ****
crinkleroot Cardamine diphylla (Michx.)Wood ****
sand bittercress Cardamine parviflora L. ****
Carolina draba Draba reptans (Lam.)Fern. ****
hairy rockcress Arabis hirsuta (L.)Scop. **
lyrate rockcress Arabis lyrata L. **
American searocket Cakile edentula (Bigelow)Hook. **
Pennsylvania bittercress Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl.exWilld. **
cuckoo flower Cardamine pratensis L. **
bog yellowcress Rorippa palustris (L.)Bess. **
Cabombaceae watershield Brasenia schreberi J.F.Gmel. **
Cactaceae devil’s-tongue Opuntia humifusa (Raf.)Raf. ****
Callitrichaceae northern water-starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica L. ****
twoheaded water-starwort Callitriche heterophylla Pursh **
vernal water-starwort Callitriche palustris L. **
terrestrial water-starwort Callitriche terrestris Raf. **
Campanulaceae cardinalflower Lobelia cardinalis L. ****
Indian-tobacco Lobelia inflata L. ****
Ontario lobelia Lobelia kalmii L. ****
Nuttall’s lobelia Lobelia nuttallii Schult. ****
great blue lobelia Lobelia siphilitica L. ****
palespike lobelia Lobelia spicata Lam. ****
clasping Venus’ looking-glass Triodanis perfoliata (L.)Nieuwl. ****
marsh bellflower Campanula aparinoides Pursh **
American bellflower Campanulastrum americanum (L.)Small **
Capparaceae redwhisker clammyweed Polanisia dodecandra (L.)DC. **
Caprifoliaceae northern bush honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera P.Mill. ****
limber honeysuckle Lonicera dioica L. ****
trumpet honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens L. ****
common elderberry Sambucus nigra L.ssp.canadensis(L.)R.Bolli ****
feverwort Triosteum perfoliatum L. ****
mapleleaf viburnum Viburnum acerifolium L. ****
southern arrowwood Viburnum dentatum L. ****
hobblebush Viburnum lantanoides Michx. ****
blackhaw Viburnum prunifolium L. ****
orangefruit horse-gentian Triosteum aurantiacum Bickn. ***
twinflower Linnaea borealis L. **
red elderberry Sambucus racemosa L. **
nannyberry Viburnum lentago L. **
possumhaw Viburnum nudum L. **
Caryophyllaceae seaside sandplant Honckenya peploides (L.)Ehrh. ****
sleepy silene Silene antirrhina L. ****
Pennsylvania catchfly Silene caroliniana Walt.ssp.pensylvanica(Michx.)Clausen ****
widowsfrill Silene stellata (L.)Ait.f. ****
nodding chickweed Cerastium nutans Raf. **
pinebarren stitchwort Minuartia caroliniana (Walt.)Mattf. **
bluntleaf sandwort Moehringia lateriflora (L.)Fenzl **
smooth forked nailwort Paronychia canadensis (L.)Wood **
trailing pearlwort Sagina decumbens (Ell.)Torr.&Gray **
bog chickweed Stellaria alsine Grimm **
longleaf starwort Stellaria longifolia Muhl.exWilld. **
Celastraceae American bittersweet Celastrus scandens L. ****
strawberry bush Euonymus americana L. ****
eastern wahoo Euonymus atropurpurea Jacq. **
running strawberry bush Euonymus obovata Nutt. **
Ceratophyllaceae coon’s tail Ceratophyllum demersum L. **
spineless hornwort Ceratophyllum echinatum Gray **
Chenopodiaceae crested saltbush Atriplex cristata Humb.&Bonpl.exWilld. ****
mapleleaf goosefoot Chenopodium simplex (Torr.)Raf. ****
chickenclaws Sarcocornia perennis (P.Mill.)A.J.Scott ****
red goosefoot Chenopodium rubrum L. **
Standley’s goosefoot Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen **
dwarf saltwort Salicornia bigelovii Torr. **
annual seepweed Suaeda linearis (Ell.)Moq. **
Cistaceae hairy pinweed Lechea mucronata Raf. ****
Illinois pinweed Lechea racemulosa Michx. ****
hoary frostweed Helianthemum bicknellii Fern. **
longbranch frostweed Helianthemum canadense (L.)Michx. **
pinebarren goldenheather Hudsonia ericoides L. **
woolly beachheather Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. **
largepod pinweed Lechea intermedia LeggettexBritt. **
beach pinweed Lechea maritima LeggettexB.S.P. **
thymeleaf pinweed Lechea minor L. **
Leggett’s pinweed Lechea pulchella Raf. **
narrowleaf pinweed Lechea tenuifolia Michx. **
Clethraceae coastal sweetpepperbush Clethra alnifolia L. ****
Clusiaceae lesser Canadian St. Johnswort Hypericum canadense L. ****
spotted St. Johnswort Hypericum punctatum Lam. ****
Virginia marsh St. Johnswort Triadenum virginicum (L.)Raf. ****
pale St. Johnswort Hypericum ellipticum Hook. **
orangegrass Hypericum gentianoides (L.)B.S.P. **
large St. Johnswort Hypericum majus (Gray)Britt. **
dwarf St. Johnswort Hypericum mutilum L. **
Commelinaceae whitemouth dayflower Commelina erecta L. ****
Convolvulaceae low false bindweed Calystegia spithamaea (L.)Pursh ****
man of the earth Ipomoea pandurata (L.)G.F.W.Mey. ****
Cornaceae alternateleaf dogwood Cornus alternifolia L.f. ****
silky dogwood Cornus amomum P.Mill. ****
stiff dogwood Cornus florida L. ****
flowering dogwood Cornus foemina P.Mill. ****
gray dogwood Cornus racemosa Lam. ****
roundleaf dogwood Cornus rugosa Lam. ****
redosier dogwood Cornus sericea L. ****
bunchberry dogwood Cornus canadensis L. **
Crassulaceae ditch stonecrop Penthorum sedoides L. ****
Cucurbitaceae wild cucumber Echinocystis lobata (Michx.)Torr.&Gray ****
oneseed burr cucumber Sicyos angulatus L. ****
Cupressaceae Atlantic white cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.)B.S.P. ****
eastern redcedar Juniperus virginiana L. ****
common juniper Juniperus communis L. **
Cuscutaceae scaldweed Cuscuta gronovii Willd.exJ.A.Schultes ****
fiveangled dodder Cuscuta pentagona Engelm. ***
buttonbush dodder Cuscuta cephalanthi Engelm. **
compact dodder Cuscuta compacta Juss.exChoisy **
hazel dodder Cuscuta coryli Engelm. **
Cyperaceae densetuft hairsedge Bulbostylis capillaris (L.)KunthexC.B.Clarke ****
thicket sedge Carex abscondita Mackenzie ****
Emmons’ sedge Carex albicans Willd.exSpreng.var.emmonsii(DeweyexTorr.)J.Rettig ****
oval-leaf sedge Carex cephalophora Muhl.exWilld. ****
bristleleaf sedge Carex eburnea Boott ****
Hitchcock’s sedge Carex hitchcockiana Dewey ****
hop sedge Carex lupulina Muhl.exWilld. ****
Muhlenberg’s sedge Carex muehlenbergii SchkuhrexWilld. ****
Pennsylvania sedge Carex pensylvanica Lam. ****
broadleaf sedge Carex platyphylla Carey ****
Schweinitz’s sedge Carex schweinitzii DeweyexSchwein. ****
squarrose sedge Carex squarrosa L. ****
parasol sedge Carex umbellata SchkuhrexWilld. ****
fox sedge Carex vulpinoidea Michx. ****
globe flatsedge Cyperus echinatus (L.)Wood ****
Great Plains flatsedge Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.)Marcks ssp.lupulinus ****
fragrant flatsedge Cyperus odoratus L. ****
bearded flatsedge Cyperus squarrosus L. ****
strawcolored flatsedge Cyperus strigosus L. ****
threeway sedge Dulichium arundinaceum (L.)Britt. ****
elliptic spikerush Eleocharis elliptica Kunth ****
bald spikerush Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. ****
dwarf spikerush Eleocharis parvula (Roemer&J.A.Schultes)LinkexBluff,Nees&Schauer ****
beaked spikerush Eleocharis rostellata (Torr.)Torr. ****
hairy umbrella-sedge Fuirena squarrosa Michx. ****
white beaksedge Rhynchospora alba (L.)Vahl ****
brownish beaksedge Rhynchospora capitellata (Michx.)Vahl ****
chairmaker’s bulrush Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.)Volk.exSchinz&R.Keller ****
river bulrush Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.)M.T.Strong ****
softstem bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K.C.Gmel.)Palla ****
woodland bulrush Scirpus expansus Fern. ****
whip nutrush Scleria triglomerata Michx. ****
bashful bulrush Trichophorum planifolium (Spreng.)Palla ****
thinleaf sedge Carex cephaloidea (Dewey)Dewey ***
New England bulrush Schoenoplectus novae-angliae (Britt.)M.T.Strong ***
panicled bulrush Scirpus microcarpus J.&K.Presl ***
broadwing sedge Carex alata Torr. **
greenwhite sedge Carex albolutescens Schwein. **
white bear sedge Carex albursina Sheldon **
eastern narrowleaf sedge Carex amphibola Steud. **
yellowfruit sedge Carex annectens (Bickn.)Bickn. **
water sedge Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. **
hay sedge Carex argyrantha Tuckerman **
prickly bog sedge Carex atlantica Baileyssp.capillacea(Bailey)Reznicek **
Barratt’s sedge Carex barrattii Schwein.&Torr. **
eastern woodland sedge Carex blanda Dewey **
bromelike sedge Carex bromoides SchkuhrexWilld. **
button sedge Carex bullata SchkuhrexWilld. **
Bush’s sedge Carex bushii Mackenzie **
Buxbaum’s sedge Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. **
silvery sedge Carex canescens L. **
fibrousroot sedge Carex communis Bailey **
longhair sedge Carex comosa Boott **
hirsute sedge Carex complanata Torr.&Hook. **
openfield sedge Carex conoidea SchkuhrexWilld. **
fringed sedge Carex crinita Lam. **
white edge sedge Carex debilis Michx. **
slender woodland sedge Carex digitalis Willd. **
softleaf sedge Carex disperma Dewey **
star sedge Carex echinata Murr. **
thinfruit sedge Carex flaccosperma Dewey **
dryspike sedge Carex foenea Willd. **
northern long sedge Carex folliculata L. **
graceful sedge Carex gracillima Schwein. **
limestone meadow sedge Carex granularis Muhl.exWilld. **
Gray’s sedge Carex grayi Carey **
nodding sedge Carex gynandra Schwein. **
fuzzy wuzzy sedge Carex hirsutella Mackenzie **
pubescent sedge Carex hirtifolia Mackenzie **
bottlebrush sedge Carex hystericina Muhl.exWilld. **
greater bladder sedge Carex intumescens Rudge **
spreading sedge Carex laxiculmis Schwein. **
broad looseflower sedge Carex laxiflora Lam. **
bristlystalked sedge Carex leptalea Wahlenb. **
false hop sedge Carex lupuliformis SartwellexDewey **
shallow sedge Carex lurida Wahlenb. **
black edge sedge Carex nigromarginata Schwein. **
greater straw sedge Carex normalis Mackenzie **
pale sedge Carex pallescens L. **
woolly sedge Carex pellita MuhlexWilld. **
variable sedge Carex polymorpha Muhl. **
drooping sedge Carex prasina Wahlenb. **
cypresslike sedge Carex pseudocyperus L. **
reflexed sedge Carex retroflexa Muhl.exWilld. **
knotsheath sedge Carex retrorsa Schwein. **
rosy sedge Carex rosea SchkuhrexWilld. **
eastern rough sedge Carex scabrata Schwein. **
broom sedge Carex scoparia SchkuhrexWilld. **
beach sedge Carex silicea Olney **
burr reed sedge Carex sparganioides Muhl.exWilld. **
dioecious sedge Carex sterilis Willd. **
owlfruit sedge Carex stipata Muhl.exWilld. **
eastern straw sedge Carex straminea Willd.exSchkuhr **
upright sedge Carex stricta Lam. **
bent sedge Carex styloflexa Buckl. **
Swan’s sedge Carex swanii (Fern.)Mackenzie **
rigid sedge Carex tetanica Schkuhr **
blunt broom sedge Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. **
hairyfruit sedge Carex trichocarpa Muhl.exWilld. **
threeseeded sedge Carex trisperma Dewey **
velvet sedge Carex vestita Willd. **
ribbed sedge Carex virescens Muhl.exWilld. **
Willdenow’s sedge Carex willdenowii SchkuhrexWilld. **
smooth sawgrass Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.)Torr. **
slender flatsedge Cyperus bipartitus Torr. **
toothed flatsedge Cyperus dentatus Torr. **
umbrella flatsedge Cyperus diandrus Torr. **
redroot flatsedge Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. **
yellow flatsedge Cyperus flavescens L. **
Gray’s flatsedge Cyperus grayi Torr. **
needle spikerush Eleocharis acicularis (L.)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
Engelmann’s spikerush Eleocharis engelmannii Steud. **
blackfruit spikerush Eleocharis melanocarpa Torr. **
blunt spikerush Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.)J.A.Schultes **
bright green spikerush Eleocharis olivacea Torr.var.olivacea **
ovate spikerush Eleocharis ovata (Roth)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
common spikerush Eleocharis palustris (L.)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
squarestem spikerush Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michx.)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
cone-cup spikerush Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
slender cottongrass Eriophorum gracile W.D.J.Koch **
tawny cottongrass Eriophorum virginicum L. **
slender fimbry Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.)Roemer&J.A.Schultes **
marsh fimbry Fimbristylis castanea (Michx.)Vahl **
brown beaksedge Rhynchospora fusca (L.)Ait.f. **
common threesquare Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl)Pallavar.pungens **
weakstalk bulrush Schoenoplectus purshianus (Fern.)M.T.Strong **
sturdy bulrush Schoenoplectus robustus (Pursh)M.T.Strong **
Torrey’s bulrush Schoenoplectus torreyi (Olney)Palla **
woolgrass Scirpus cyperinus (L.)Kunth **
rufous bulrush Scirpus pendulus Muhl. **
leafy bulrush Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl **
netted nutrush Scleria reticularis Michx. **
low nutrush Scleria verticillata Muhl.exWilld. **
Dennstaedtiaceae eastern hayscented fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.)T.Moore ****
western brackenfern Pteridium aquilinum (L.)Kuhn ****
Dioscoreaceae wild yam Dioscorea villosa L. ****
Droseraceae threadleaf sundew Drosera filiformis Raf. **
spoonleaf sundew Drosera intermedia Hayne **
roundleaf sundew Drosera rotundifolia L. **
Dryopteridaceae common ladyfern Athyrium filix-femina (L.)Roth ****
bulblet bladderfern Cystopteris bulbifera (L.)Bernh. ****
brittle bladderfern Cystopteris fragilis (L.)Bernh. ****
silver false spleenwort Deparia acrostichoides (Sw.)M.Kato ****
spinulose woodfern Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.)H.P.Fuchs ****
crested woodfern Dryopteris cristata (L.)Gray ****
intermediate woodfern Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.exWilld.)Gray ****
marginal woodfern Dryopteris marginalis (L.)Gray ****
ostrich fern Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.)Todaro ****
sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis L. ****
Christmas fern Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.)Schott ****
rusty woodsia Woodsia ilvensis (L.)R.Br. ****
bluntlobe cliff fern Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.)Torr. ****
mountain woodfern Dryopteris campyloptera Clarkson **
Clinton’s woodfern Dryopteris clintoniana (D.C.Eat.)Dowell **
Goldie’s woodfern Dryopteris goldiana (Hook.exGoldie)Gray **
western oakfern Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.)Newman **
Ebenaceae common persimmon Diospyros virginiana L. ****
Elatinaceae American waterwort Elatine americana (Pursh)Arn. **
Equisetaceae field horsetail Equisetum arvense L. ****
scouringrush horsetail Equisetum hyemale L. ****
water horsetail Equisetum fluviatile L. **
woodland horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum L. **
Ericaceae creeping snowberry Gaultheria hispidula (L.)Muhl.exBigelow ****
eastern teaberry Gaultheria procumbens L. ****
black huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.)K.Koch ****
blue huckleberry Gaylussacia frondosa (L.)Torr.&GrayexTorr. ****
mountain laurel Kalmia latifolia L. ****
swamp doghobble Leucothoe racemosa (L.)Gray ****
maleberry Lyonia ligustrina (L.)DC. ****
piedmont staggerbush Lyonia mariana (L.)D.Don ****
swamp azalea Rhododendron viscosum (L.)Torr. ****
lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. ****
highbush blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum L. ****
cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. ****
Blue Ridge blueberry Vaccinium pallidum Ait. ****
deerberry Vaccinium stamineum L. ****
kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.)Spreng. **
leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.)Moench **
trailing arbutus Epigaea repens L. **
dwarf huckleberry Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.)Torr.&Gray **
sheep laurel Kalmia angustifolia L. **
rhodora Rhododendron canadense (L.)Torr. **
great laurel Rhododendron maximum L. **
Eriocaulaceae sevenangle pipewort Eriocaulon aquaticum (Hill)Druce **
Euphorbiaceae slender threeseed mercury Acalypha gracilens Gray ****
Virginia threeseed mercury Acalypha virginica L. ****
spotted sandmat Chamaesyce maculata (L.)Small ****
eyebane Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.)Small ****
seaside sandmat Chamaesyce polygonifolia (L.)Small ****
wormseed sandmat Chamaesyce vermiculata (Raf.)House ***
ribseed sandmat Chamaesyce glyptosperma (Engelm.)Small **
flowering spurge Euphorbia corollata L. **
American ipecac Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L. **
Fabaceae American hogpeanut Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.)Fern. ****
groundnut Apios americana Medik. ****
eastern redbud Cercis canadensis L. ****
sleepingplant Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.)Greene ****
partridge pea Chamaecrista nictitans (L.)Moench ****
arrowhead rattlebox Crotalaria sagittalis L. ****
showy ticktrefoil Desmodium canadense (L.)DC. ****
hoary ticktrefoil Desmodium canescens (L.)DC. ****
Dillenius’ ticktrefoil Desmodium glabellum (Michx.)DC. ****
smooth ticktrefoil Desmodium laevigatum (Nutt.)DC. ****
smooth small-leaf ticktrefoil Desmodium marilandicum (L.)DC. ****
nakedflower ticktrefoil Desmodium nudiflorum (L.)DC. ****
Nuttall’s ticktrefoil Desmodium nuttallii (Schindl.)Schub. ****
stiff ticktrefoil Desmodium obtusum (Muhl.exWilld.)DC. ****
panicledleaf ticktrefoil Desmodium paniculatum (L.)DC. ****
prostrate ticktrefoil Desmodium rotundifolium DC. ****
downy milkpea Galactia volubilis (L.)Britt. ****
marsh pea Lathyrus palustris L. ****
roundhead lespedeza Lespedeza capitata Michx. ****
hairy lespedeza Lespedeza hirta (L.)Hornem. ****
trailing lespedeza Lespedeza procumbens Michx. ****
violet lespedeza Lespedeza violacea (L.)Pers. ****
thicket bean Phaseolus polystachios (L.)B.S.P. ****
trailing fuzzybean Strophostyles helvula (L.)Ell. ****
Carolina vetch Vicia caroliniana Walt. ****
horseflyweed Baptisia tinctoria (L) R. Br. **
Atlantic pigeonwings Clitoria mariana L. **
hairy small-leaf ticktrefoil Desmodium ciliare (Muhl.exWilld.)DC. **
largebract ticktrefoil Desmodium cuspidatum (Muhl.exWilld.)DC.exLoud. **
pointedleaf ticktrefoil Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl.exWilld.)Wood **
beach pea Lathyrus japonicus Willd. **
narrowleaf lespedeza Lespedeza angustifolia (Pursh)Ell. **
creeping lespedeza Lespedeza repens (L.)W.Bart. **
tall lespedeza Lespedeza stuevei Nutt. **
sundial lupine Lupinus perennis L. **
American senna Senna hebecarpa (Fern.)Irwin&Barneby **
pink fuzzybean Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl.exWilld.)Britt. **
Virginia tephrosia Tephrosia virginiana (L.)Pers. **
Fagaceae American chestnut Castanea dentata (Marsh.)Borkh. ****
American beech Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. ****
white oak Quercus alba L. ****
swamp white oak Quercus bicolor Willd. ****
scarlet oak Quercus coccinea Muenchh. ****
bur oak Quercus macrocarpa Michx. ****
pin oak Quercus palustris Muenchh. ****
dwarf chinkapin oak Quercus prinoides Willd. ****
chestnut oak Quercus prinus L. ****
northern red oak Quercus rubra L. ****
post oak Quercus stellata Wangenh. ****
black oak Quercus velutina Lam. ****
blackjack oak Quercus marilandica Muenchh. **
willow oak Quercus phellos L. **
Fumariaceae rock harlequin Corydalis sempervirens (L.)Pers. ****
dutchman’s breeches Dicentra cucullaria (L.)Bernh. ****
yellow fumewort Corydalis flavula (Raf.)DC. **
squirrel corn Dicentra canadensis (Goldie)Walp. **
Gentianaceae twining screwstem Bartonia paniculata (Michx.)Muhl. ****
closed bottle gentian Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. ****
harvestbells Gentiana saponaria L. ****
greater fringed gentian Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.)Ma ****
rosepink Sabatia angularis (L.)Pursh ****
slender rose gentian Sabatia campanulata (L.)Torr. ****
marsh rose gentian Sabatia dodecandra (L.)B.S.P. ****
yellow screwstem Betula papyrifera Marsh. **
rose of Plymouth Sabatia stellaris Pursh **
Geraniaceae Carolina geranium Geranium carolinianum L. ****
spotted geranium Geranium maculatum L. ****
Grossulariaceae American black currant Ribes americanum P.Mill. ****
eastern prickly gooseberry Ribes cynosbati L. **
hairystem gooseberry Ribes hirtellum Michx. **
Appalachian gooseberry Ribes rotundifolium Michx. **
Haloragaceae marsh mermaidweed Proserpinaca palustris L. ****
low watermilfoil Myriophyllum humile (Raf.)Morong **
cutleaf watermilfoil Myriophyllum pinnatum (Walt.)B.S.P. **
slender watermilfoil Myriophyllum tenellum Bigelow **
Hamamelidaceae American witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana L. ****
sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua L. ****
Hydrangeaceae wild hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens L. **
Hydrocharitaceae Canadian waterweed Elodea canadensis Michx. **
American eelgrass Vallisneria americana Michx. **
Hydrophyllaceae bluntleaf waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense L. ****
Shawnee salad Hydrophyllum virginianum L. **
Iridaceae common goldstar Hypoxis hirsuta (L.)Coville ****
harlequin blueflag Iris versicolor L. ****
narrowleaf blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium P.Mill. ****
slender blue iris Iris prismatica PurshexKer-Gawl. **
eastern blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium atlanticum Bickn. **
coastalplain blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium fuscatum Bickn. **
needletip blue-eyed grass Sisyrinchium mucronatum Michx. **
Isoetaceae Appalachian quillwort Isoetes engelmannii A.Braun **
shore quillwort Isoetes riparia Engelm.exA.Braun **
Juglandaceae mockernut hickory Carya alba (L.)Nutt. ****
bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.)K.Koch ****
pignut hickory Carya glabra (P.Mill.)Sweet ****
shellbark hickory Carya laciniosa (Michx.f.)G.Don ****
red hickory Carya ovalis (Wangenh.)Sarg. ****
shagbark hickory Carya ovata (P.Mill.)K.Koch ****
butternut Juglans cinerea L. ****
black walnut Juglans nigra L. ****
Juncaceae tapertip rush Juncus acuminatus Michx. ****
jointleaf rush Juncus articulatus L. ****
common rush Juncus effusus L. ****
saltmeadow rush Juncus gerardii Loisel. ****
grassleaf rush Juncus marginatus Rostk. ****
knotted rush Juncus nodosus L. ****
poverty rush Juncus tenuis Willd. ****
Torrey’s rush Juncus torreyi Coville ****
Baltic rush Juncus balticus Willd. **
bog rush Juncus biflorus Ell. **
toad rush Juncus bufonius L. **
Canadian rush Juncus canadensis J.GayexLaharpe **
weak rush Juncus debilis Gray **
forked rush Juncus dichotomus Ell. **
brownfruit rush Juncus pelocarpus E.Mey. **
needlepod rush Juncus scirpoides Lam. **
lopsided rush Juncus secundus Beauv.exPoir. **
hairy woodrush Luzula acuminata Raf. **
Juncaginaceae seaside arrowgrass Triglochin maritimum L. ****
Lamiaceae yellow giant hyssop Agastache nepetoides (L.)Kuntze ****
richweed Collinsonia canadensis L. ****
northern bugleweed Lycopus uniflorus Michx. ****
basil mountainmint Pycnanthemum clinopodioides Torr.&Gray ****
hoary mountainmint Pycnanthemum incanum (L.)Michx. ****
clustered mountainmint Pycnanthemum muticum (Michx.)Pers. ****
narrowleaf mountainmint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad. ****
Torrey’s mountainmint Pycnanthemum torrei Benth. ****
Virginia mountainmint Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.)T.Dur.&B.D.JacksonexB.L.Robins.&Fern. ****
lyreleaf sage Salvia lyrata L. ****
hairy skullcap Scutellaria elliptica Muhl.exSpreng. ****
marsh skullcap Scutellaria galericulata L. ****
blue skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora L. ****
hyssopleaf hedgenettle Stachys hyssopifolia Michx. ****
smooth hedgenettle Stachys tenuifolia Willd. ****
Canada germander Teucrium canadense L. ****
forked bluecurls Trichostema dichotomum L. ****
purple giant hyssop Agastache scrophulariifolia (Willd.)Kuntze **
common dittany Cunila origanoides (L.)Britt. **
American false pennyroyal Hedeoma pulegioides (L.)Pers. **
American water horehound Lycopus americanus Muhl.exW.Bart. **
clasping water horehound Lycopus amplectens Raf. **
taperleaf water horehound Lycopus rubellus Moench **
Virginia water horehound Lycopus virginicus L. **
scarlet beebalm Monarda didyma L. **
wild bergamot Monarda fistulosa L. **
spotted beebalm Monarda punctata L. **
whorled mountainmint Pycnanthemum verticillatum (Michx.)Pers. **
helmet flower Scutellaria integrifolia L. **
marsh hedgenettle Stachys palustris L. **
narrowleaf bluecurls Trichostema setaceum Houtt. **
Lauraceae northern spicebush Lindera benzoin (L.)Blume ****
sassafras Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)Nees ****
Lemnaceae common duckweed Lemna minor L. ****
minute duckweed Lemna perpusilla Torr. **
star duckweed Lemna trisulca L. **
valdivia duckweed Lemna valdiviana Phil. **
common duckmeat Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.)Schleid. **
Columbian watermeal Wolffia columbiana Karst. **
Lentibulariaceae hiddenfruit bladderwort Utricularia geminiscapa Benj. **
humped bladderwort Utricularia gibba L. **
common bladderwort Utricularia macrorhiza LeConte **
lesser bladderwort Utricularia minor L. **
eastern purple bladderwort Utricularia purpurea Walt. **
striped bladderwort Utricularia striata LeConteexTorrey **
Liliaceae white colicroot Aletris farinosa L. ****
meadow garlic Allium canadense L. ****
fairywand Chamaelirium luteum (L.)Gray ****
dogtooth violet Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl. ****
Canada lily Lilium canadense L. ****
wood lily Lilium philadelphicum L. ****
turk’s-cap lily Lilium superbum L. ****
Canada mayflower Maianthemum canadense Desf. ****
feathery false lily of the vally Maianthemum racemosum (L.)Link ****
Indian cucumber Medeola virginiana L. ****
hairy Solomon’s seal Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.)Pursh ****
red trillium Trillium erectum L. ****
perfoliate bellwort Uvularia perfoliata L. ****
sessileleaf bellwort Uvularia sessilifolia L. ****
green false hellebore Veratrum viride Ait. ****
wild leek Allium tricoccum Ait. **
flypoison Amianthium muscitoxicum (Walt.)Gray **
white fawnlily Erythronium albidum Nutt. **
swamppink Helonias bullata L. **
starry false lily of the vally Maianthemum stellatum (L.)Link **
slender bunchflower Melanthium latifolium Desr. **
Virginia bunchflower Melanthium virginicum L. **
smooth Solomon’s seal Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.)Ell. **
whip-poor-will flower Trillium cernuum L. **
painted trillium Trillium undulatum Willd. **
pinebarren deathcamas Zigadenus leimanthoides Gray **
Limnanthaceae false mermaidweed Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. **
Linaceae woodland flax Linum virginianum L. ****
ridged yellow flax Linum striatum Walt. **
grooved flax Linum sulcatum Riddell **
Lycopodiaceae shining clubmoss Huperzia lucidula (Michx.)Trevisan ****
groundcedar Lycopodium complanatum L. ****
rare clubmoss Lycopodium obscurum L. ****
foxtail clubmoss Lycopodiella alopecuroides (L.)Cranfill **
slender clubmoss Lycopodiella caroliniana (L.)PichiSermolli **
inundated clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata (L.)Holub **
stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum L. **
running clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum L. **
Lygodiaceae American climbing fern Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.)Sw. **
Lythraceae blue waxweed Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. ****
swamp loosestrife Decodon verticillatus (L.)Ell. **
winged lythrum Lythrum alatum Pursh **
lowland rotala Rotala ramosior (L.)Koehne **
Magnoliaceae Tuliptree Liriodendron Tulipifera ****
cucumber-tree Magnolia acuminata (L.)L. ***
sweetbay Magnolia virginiana L. **
Malvaceae crimsoneyed rosemallow Hibiscus moscheutos L. ****
Melastomataceae handsome Harry Rhexia virginica L. ****
Menispermaceae common moonseed Menispermum canadense L. ****
Monotropaceae pinesap Monotropa hypopithys L. ****
Indianpipe Monotropa uniflora L. ****
Moraceae red mulberry Morus rubra L. ****
Myricaceae sweet fern Comptonia peregrina (L.)Coult. ****
northern bayberry Morella pensylvanica (Mirbel) Kartesz ****
sweetgale Myrica gale L. **
Najadaceae nodding waternymph Najas flexilis (Willd.)Rostk.&Schmidt **
Nymphaeaceae yellow pond-lily Nuphar lutea (L.)Sm. ****
American white waterlily Nymphaea odorata Ait.ssp.odorata ****
Nyssaceae blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. ****
Oleaceae white ash Fraxinus americana L. ****
black ash Fraxinus nigra Marsh. ****
green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. ****
Onagraceae broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade Circaea lutetiana L. ****
purpleleaf willowherb Epilobium coloratum Biehler ****
bog willowherb Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. ****
marsh willowherb Epilobium palustre L. ****
seedbox Ludwigia alternifolia L. ****
marsh seedbox Ludwigia palustris (L.)Ell. ****
common evening-primrose Oenothera biennis L. ****
northern evening-primrose Oenothera parviflora L. ****
cutleaf evening-primrose Oenothera laciniata Hill ***
fireweed Chamerion angustifolium (L.)Holub **
downy willowherb Epilobium strictum Muhl.exSpreng. **
globefruit primrose-willow Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Ell. **
narrowleaf evening-primrose Oenothera fruticosa L. **
little evening-primrose Oenothera perennis L. **
Ophioglossaceae cutleaf grapefern Botrychium dissectum Spreng. ****
rattlesnake fern Botrychium virginianum (L.)Sw. ****
northern adderstongue Ophioglossum pusillum Raf. ****
lanceleaf grapefern Botrychium lanceolatum (Gmel.)Angstr. **
matricary grapefern Botrychium matricariifolium (A.BraunexDowell)A.BraunexKoch **
leathery grapefern Botrychium multifidum (Gmel.)Trev. **
little grapefern Botrychium simplex E.Hitchc. **
Orchidaceae summer coralroot Corallorrhiza maculata (Raf.)Raf. ****
autumn coralroot Corallorrhiza odontorhiza (Willd.)Poir. ****
moccasin flower Cypripedium acaule Ait. ****
lesser yellow lady’s slipper Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. ****
showy orchid Galearis spectabilis (L.)Raf. ****
downy rattlesnake plantain Goodyera pubescens (Willd.)R.Br.exAit.f. ****
brown widelip orchid Liparis liliifolia (L.)L.C.Rich.exKer-Gawl. ****
yellow widelip orchid Liparis loeselii (L.)L.C.Rich. ****
yellow fringed orchid Platanthera ciliaris (L.)Lindl. ****
palegreen orchid Platanthera flava (L.)Lindl. ****
green fringed orchid Platanthera lacera (Michx.)G.Don ****
nodding ladies’-tresses Spiranthes cernua (L.)L.C.Rich. ****
northern slender ladies’-tresses Spiranthes lacera (Raf.)Raf.var.gracilis(Bigelow)Luer ****
crippled cranefly Tipularia discolor (Pursh)Nutt. ****
threebirds Triphora trianthophora (Sw.)Rydb. ****
Adam and Eve Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.exWilld.)Torr. **
dragon’s mouth Arethusa bulbosa L. **
tuberous grasspink Caltha palustris L. **
longbract frog orchid Coeloglossum viride (L.)Hartman **
showy lady’s slipper Cypripedium reginae Walt. **
purple fiveleaf orchid Isotria verticillata Raf. **
heartleaf twayblade Listera cordata (L.)R.Br.exAit.f. **
green adder’s-mouth orchid Malaxis unifolia Michx. **
white fringed orchid Platanthera blephariglottis (Willd.)Lindl. **
small green wood orchid Platanthera clavellata (Michx.)Luer **
scentbottle Platanthera dilatata (Pursh)Lindl.exBeck **
lesser purple fringed orchid Platanthera psycodes (L.)Lindl. **
snakemouth orchid Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.)Ker-Gawl. **
little ladies’-tresses Spiranthes tuberosa Raf. **
spring ladies’-tresses Spiranthes vernalis Engelm.&Gray **
Orobanchaceae American squawroot Conopholis americana (L.)Wallr.f. ****
beechdrops Epifagus virginiana (L.)W.Bart. ****
oneflowered broomrape Orobanche uniflora L. ****
Osmundaceae cinnamon fern Osmunda cinnamomea L. ****
interrupted fern Osmunda claytoniana L. ****
royal fern Osmunda regalis L. ****
Oxalidaceae mountain woodsorrel Oxalis montana Raf. ****
common yellow oxalis Oxalis stricta L. ****
violet woodsorrel Oxalis violacea L. ****
Papaveraceae bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis L. ****
Phytolaccaceae American pokeweed Phytolacca americana L. ****
Pinaceae tamarack Larix laricina (DuRoi)K.Koch ****
black spruce Picea mariana (P.Mill.)B.S.P. ****
red pine Pinus resinosa Aiton ****
pitch pine Pinus rigida P.Mill. ****
eastern white pine Pinus strobus L. ****
eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis (L.)Carr. ****
balsam fir Abies balsamea (L.)P.Mill. **
shortleaf pine Pinus echinata P.Mill. **
Virginia pine Pinus virginiana P.Mill. **
Plantaginaceae heartleaf plantain Plantago cordata Lam. ****
goose tongue Plantago maritima L. ****
dwarf plantain Plantago pusilla Nutt. ***
blackseed plantain Plantago rugelii Dcne. **
Virginia plantain Plantago virginica L. **
Platanaceae American sycamore Platanus occidentalis L. ****
Plumbaginaceae Carolina sealavender Limonium carolinianum (Walt.)Britt. ****
Poaceae winter bentgrass Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.)B.S.P. ****
upland bentgrass Agrostis perennans (Walt.)Tuckerman ****
American beachgrass Ammophila breviligulata Fern. ****
bushy bluestem Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.)B.S.P. ****
broomsedge bluestem Andropogon virginicus L. ****
slimspike threeawn Aristida longispica Poir. ****
fringed brome Bromus ciliatus L. ****
hairy woodland brome Bromus pubescens Muhl.exWilld. ****
mat sandbur Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.)Fern. ****
sanddune sandbur Cenchrus tribuloides L. ****
sweet woodreed Cinna arundinacea L. ****
flattened oatgrass Danthonia compressa AustinexPeck ****
poverty oatgrass Danthonia spicata (L.)Beauv.exRoemer&J.A.Schultes ****
wavy hairgrass Deschampsia flexuosa (L.)Trin. ****
deertongue Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.)Gould ****
starved panicgrass Dichanthelium depauperatum (Muhl.)Gould ****
velvet panicum Dichanthelium scoparium (Lam.)Gould ****
inland saltgrass Distichlis spicata (L.)Greene ****
Canada wildrye Elymus canadensis L. ****
eastern bottlebrush grass Elymus hystrix L. ****
Virginia wildrye Elymus virginicus L. ****
lace grass Eragrostis capillaris (L.)Nees ****
teal lovegrass Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.)B.S.P. ****
tufted lovegrass Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.)NeesexSteud. ****
red fescue Festuca rubra L. ****
creeping mannagrass Glyceria acutiflora Torr. ****
rattlesnake mannagrass Glyceria canadensis (Michx.)Trin. ****
vanilla grass Hierochloe odorata (L.)Beauv. ****
whitegrass Leersia virginica Willd. ****
nimblewill Muhlenbergia schreberi J.F.Gmel. ****
rock muhly Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.exWilld.)Trin. ****
witchgrass Panicum capillare L. ****
warty panicgrass Panicum verrucosum Muhl. ****
switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. ****
thin paspalum Paspalum setaceum Michx. ****
common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.)Trin.exSteud. ****
little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.)Nash ****
smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loisel. ****
big cordgrass Spartina cynosuroides (L.)Roth ****
shiny wedgescale Sphenopholis nitida (Biehler)Scribn. ****
prairie wedgescale Sphenopholis obtusata (Michx.)Scribn. ****
swamp wedgescale Sphenopholis pensylvanica (L.)A.S.Hitchc. ****
composite dropseed Sporobolus compositus (Poir.)Merr. ****
pale false mannagrass Torreyochloa pallida (Torr.)Church ****
purpletop tridens Tridens flavus (L.)A.S.Hitchc. ****
purple sandgrass Triplasis purpurea (Walt.)Chapman ****
eastern gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides (L.)L. ****
sixweeks fescue Vulpia octoflora (Walt.)Rydb. ****
tapered rosette grass Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.)Gould&C.A.Clarkvar.acuminatum ***
variable panicgrass Dichanthelium commutatum (J.A.Schultes)Gould ***
slimleaf panicgrass Dichanthelium linearifolium (Scribn.exNash)Gould ***
roundseed panicgrass Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon (Ell.)Gould ***
wirestem muhly Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir.)Fern. ***
prairie cordgrass Spartina pectinata BoscexLink ***
puffsheath dropseed Sporobolus neglectus Nash ***
rough bentgrass Agrostis scabra Willd. **
creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera L. **
big bluestem Andropogon gerardii Vitman **
churchmouse threeawn Aristida dichotoma Michx. **
arrowfeather threeawn Aristida purpurascens Poir. **
seaside threeawn Aristida tuberculosa Nutt. **
bearded shorthusk Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.exSpreng.)Beauv. **
bluejoint Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.)Beauv. **
arctic reedgrass Calamagrostis coarctata (Torr.)Eat. **
slender woodoats Chasmanthium laxum (L.)Yates **
tufted hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosa (L.)Beauv. **
Bosc’s panicgrass Dichanthelium boscii (Poir.)Gould&C.A.Clark **
broadleaf rosette grass Dichanthelium latifolium (L.)Gould&C.A.Clark **
Heller’s rosette grass Dichanthelium oligosanthes (J.A.Schultes)Gouldvar.oligosanthes **
Addison’s rosette grass Dichanthelium ovale (Ell.)Gould&C.A.Clarkvar.addisonii(Nash)Gould&C.A.Clark **
hairy wildrye Elymus villosus Muhl.exWilld. **
purple lovegrass Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh)Steud. **
American mannagrass Glyceria grandis S.Wats. **
Atlantic mannagrass Glyceria obtusa (Muhl.)Trin. **
floating mannagrass Glyceria septentrionalis A.S.Hitchc. **
fowl mannagrass Glyceria striata (Lam.)A.S.Hitchc. **
rice cutgrass Leersia oryzoides (L.)Sw. **
bearded sprangletop Leptochloa fusca (L.)Kunthssp.fascicularis(Lam.)N.Snow **
Mexican muhly Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.)Trin. **
woodland muhly Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr.exGray **
slender muhly Muhlenbergia tenuiflora (Willd.)B.S.P. **
bitter panicgrass Panicum amarum Ell. **
redtop panicgrass Panicum rigidulum BoscexNeesvar.pubescens(Vasey)Lelong **
field paspalum Paspalum laeve Michx. **
blackseed speargrass Piptochaetium avenaceum (L.)Parodi **
grove bluegrass Poa alsodes Gray **
fowl bluegrass Poa palustris L. **
woodland bluegrass Poa sylvestris Gray **
saltmarsh alkaligrass Puccinellia fasciculata (Torr.)Bickn. **
shore little bluestem Schizachyrium littorale (Nash)Bickn. **
marsh bristlegrass Setaria parviflora (Poir.)Kerguélen **
Indiangrass Sorghastrum nutans (L.)Nash **
saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina patens (Ait.)Muhl. **
slender wedgescale Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.)Rydb. **
poverty dropseed Sporobolus vaginiflorus (Torr.exGray)Wood **
annual wildrice Zizania aquatica L. **
Polemoniaceae wild blue phlox Phlox divaricata L. **
moss phlox Phlox subulata L. **
Greek valerian Polemonium reptans L. **
Polygalaceae procession flower Polygala incarnata L. ****
purple milkwort Polygala sanguinea L. ****
whorled milkwort Polygala verticillata L. ****
whorled milkwort Polygala ambigua Nutt. **
drumheads Polygala cruciata L. **
orange milkwort Polygala lutea L. **
Nuttall’s milkwort Polygala nuttallii Torr.&Gray **
gaywings Polygala paucifolia Willd. **
racemed milkwort Polygala polygama Walt. **
Polygonaceae Pennsylvania smartweed Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez ****
water knotweed Polygonum amphibium L. ****
halberdleaf tearthumb Polygonum arifolium L. ****
Carey’s smartweed Polygonum careyi Olney ****
erect knotweed Polygonum erectum L. ****
swamp smartweed Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx. ****
dotted smartweed Polygonum punctatum Ell. ****
bushy knotweed Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. ****
arrowleaf tearthumb Polygonum sagittatum L. ****
climbing false buckwheat Polygonum scandens L. ****
pleatleaf knotweed Polygonum tenue Michx. ****
jumpseed Polygonum virginianum L. ****
greater water dock Rumex orbiculatus Gray ****
coastal jointweed Polygonella articulata (L.)Meisn. **
fringed black bindweed Polygonum cilinode Michx. **
seaside knotweed Polygonum glaucum Nutt. **
pale dock Rumex altissimus Wood **
heartwing sorrel Rumex hastatulus Baldw. **
golden dock Rumex maritimus L. **
swamp dock Rumex verticillatus L. **
Polypodiaceae rock polypody Polypodium virginianum L. ****
Pontederiaceae grassleaf mudplantain Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.)MacM. **
pickerelweed Pontederia cordata L. **
Portulacaceae Virginia springbeauty Claytonia virginica L. ****
Carolina springbeauty Claytonia caroliniana Michx. **
Potamogetonaceae largeleaf pondweed Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerman **
waterthread pondweed Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. **
variableleaf pondweed Potamogeton gramineus L. **
floating pondweed Potamogeton natans L. **
longleaf pondweed Potamogeton nodosus Poir. **
claspingleaf pondweed Potamogeton perfoliatus L. **
spotted pondweed Potamogeton pulcher Tuckerman **
small pondweed Potamogeton pusillus L. **
spiral pondweed Potamogeton spirillus Tuckerman **
flatstem pondweed Potamogeton zosteriformis Fern. **
sago pondweed Stuckenia pectinatus (L.)Boerner **
Primulaceae fringed loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata L. ****
earth loosestrife Lysimachia terrestris (L.)B.S.P. ****
tufted loosestrife Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. ****
starflower Trientalis borealis Raf. ****
American featherfoil Hottonia inflata Ell. **
lowland yellow loosestrife Lysimachia hybrida Michx. **
whorled yellow loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifolia L. **
seaside brookweed Samolus valerandi L.ssp.parviflorus(Raf.)Hultén **
Pteridaceae northern maidenhair Adiantum pedatum L. ****
hairy lipfern Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.)D.C.Eat. ****
purple cliffbrake Pellaea atropurpurea (L.)Link ****
Pyrolaceae striped prince’s pine Chimaphila maculata (L.)Pursh ****
pipsissewa Chimaphila umbellata (L.)W.Bart. ****
American wintergreen Pyrola americana Sweet ****
sidebells wintergreen Orthilia secunda (L.)House **
waxflower shinleaf Pyrola elliptica Nutt. **
Ranunculaceae white baneberry Actaea pachypoda Ell. ****
red baneberry Actaea rubra (Ait.)Willd. ****
Canadian anemone Anemone canadensis L. ****
candle anemone Anemone cylindrica Gray ****
nightcaps Anemone quinquefolia L. ****
tall thimbleweed Anemone virginiana L. ****
red columbine Aquilegia canadensis L. ****
yellow marsh marigold Calopogon tuberosus (L.)B.S.P. ****
black bugbane Cimicifuga racemosa (L.)Nutt. ****
devil’s darning needles Clematis virginiana L. ****
roundlobe hepatica Hepatica nobilis Schreb.var.obtusa(Pursh)Steyermark ****
littleleaf buttercup Ranunculus abortivus L. ****
greater creeping spearwort Ranunculus flammula L. ****
Pennsylvania buttercup Ranunculus pensylvanicus L.f. ****
low spearwort Ranunculus pusillus Poir. ****
blisterwort Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. ****
cursed buttercup Ranunculus sceleratus L. ****
purple meadow-rue Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch.&Avé-Lall. ****
early meadow-rue Thalictrum dioicum L. ****
rue anemone Thalictrum thalictroides (L.)Eames&Boivin ****
curlyheads Clematis ochroleuca Ait. **
threeleaf goldthread Coptis trifolia (L.)Salisb. **
waterplantain spearwort Ranunculus ambigens S.Wats. **
alkali buttercup Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh **
early buttercup Ranunculus fascicularis Muhl.exBigelow **
yellow water buttercup Ranunculus flabellaris Raf. **
bristly buttercup Ranunculus hispidus Michx. **
rock buttercup Ranunculus micranthus Nutt. **
threadleaf crowfoot Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix **
king of the meadow Thalictrum pubescens Pursh **
waxyleaf meadow-rue Thalictrum revolutum DC. **
American globeflower Trollius laxus Salisb. **
Rhamnaceae New Jersey tea Ceanothus americanus L. ****
Rosaceae harvestlice Agrimonia parviflora Ait. ****
Canadian serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis (L.)Medik. ****
cockspur hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli L. ****
scarlet hawthorn Crataegus pedicellata Sarg. ****
waxyfruit hawthorn Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl.f.)K.Koch ****
shrubby cinquefoil Dasiphora floribunda (Pursh) Raf. ****
Virginia strawberry Fragaria virginiana Duchesne ****
spring avens Geum vernum (Raf.)Torr.&Gray ****
cream avens Geum virginianum L. ****
sweet crabapple Malus coronaria (L.)P.Mill. ****
black chokeberry Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.)Robertson&Phipps ****
red chokeberry Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.)Robertson&Phipps ****
dwarf cinquefoil Potentilla canadensis L. ****
Norwegian cinquefoil Potentilla norvegica L. ****
common cinquefoil Potentilla simplex Michx. ****
beach plum Prunus maritima Marsh. ****
pin cherry Prunus pensylvanica L.f. ****
black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. ****
chokecherry Prunus virginiana L. ****
Carolina rose Rosa carolina L. ****
swamp rose Rosa palustris Marsh. ****
Virginia rose Rosa virginiana P.Mill. ****
Allegheny blackberry Rubus allegheniensis Porter ****
smooth blackberry Rubus canadensis L. ****
sand blackberry Rubus cuneifolius Pursh ****
northern dewberry Rubus flagellaris Willd. ****
bristly dewberry Rubus hispidus L. ****
black raspberry Rubus occidentalis L. ****
purpleflowering raspberry Rubus odoratus L. ****
American mountain ash Sorbus americana Marsh. ****
steeplebush Spiraea tomentosa L. ****
common serviceberry Amelanchier arborea (Michx.f.)Fern. ***
running serviceberry Amelanchier stolonifera Wieg. ***
Copenhagen hawthorn Crataegus intricata Lange ***
tall hairy agrimony Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. **
soft agrimony Agrimonia pubescens Wallr. **
silverweed cinquefoil Argentina anserina (L.)Rydb. **
purple chokeberry Aronia X prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder (pro sp.) **
dwarf hawthorn Crataegus uniflora Muenchh. **
yellow avens Geum aleppicum Jacq. **
white avens Geum canadense Jacq. **
common ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius (L.)Maxim. **
American plum Prunus americana Marsh. **
sandcherry Prunus pumila L. **
climbing rose Rosa setigera Michx. **
grayleaf red raspberry Rubus idaeus L.ssp.strigosus(Michx.)Focke **
Pennsylvania blackberry Rubus pensilvanicus Poir. **
Canadian burnet Sanguisorba canadensis L. **
white meadowsweet Spiraea alba DuRoi **
Rubiaceae common buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis L. ****
rough bedstraw Galium asprellum Michx. ****
northern bedstraw Galium boreale L. ****
lanceleaf wild licorice Galium lanceolatum Torr. ****
fragrant bedstraw Galium triflorum Michx. ****
partridgeberry Mitchella repens L. ****
clustered mille graines Oldenlandia uniflora L. ****
common marsh bedstraw Galium palustre L. ***
poorjoe Diodia teres Walt. **
stickywilly Galium aparine L. **
licorice bedstraw Galium circaezans Michx. **
hairy bedstraw Galium pilosum Ait. **
stiff marsh bedstraw Galium tinctorium L. **
threepetal bedstraw Galium trifidum L. **
azure bluet Houstonia caerulea L. **
longleaf summer bluet Houstonia longifolia Gaertn. **
Ruppiaceae widgeongrass Ruppia maritima L. **
Rutaceae common hoptree Ptelea trifoliata L. ****
common pricklyash Zanthoxylum americanum P.Mill. **
Salicaceae balsam poplar Populus balsamifera L. ****
bigtooth aspen Populus grandidentata Michx. ****
swamp cottonwood Populus heterophylla L. ****
quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Michx. ****
sageleaf willow Salix candida FlueggéexWilld. ****
pussy willow Salix discolor Muhl. ****
Missouri River willow Salix eriocephala Michx. ****
prairie willow Salix humilis Marsh. ****
black willow Salix nigra Marsh. ****
silky willow Salix sericea Marsh. ****
eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Bartr.exMarsh. ***
Bebb willow Salix bebbiana Sarg. **
heartleaf willow Salix cordata Michx. **
narrowleaf willow Salix exigua Nutt. **
meadow willow Salix petiolaris Sm. **
Santalaceae bastard toadflax Comandra umbellata (L.)Nutt. **
Sarraceniaceae purple pitcherplant Sarracenia purpurea L. **
Saururaceae lizard’s tail Saururus cernuus L. ****
Saxifragaceae American golden saxifrage Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein.exHook. ****
fen grass of Parnassus Parnassia glauca Raf. ****
eastern swamp saxifrage Saxifraga pensylvanica L. ****
early saxifrage Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. ****
American alumroot Heuchera americana L. **
twoleaf miterwort Mitella diphylla L. **
heartleaf foamflower Tiarella cordifolia L. **
Schizaeaceae little curlygrass fern Schizaea pusilla Pursh **
Scrophulariaceae saltmarsh false foxglove Agalinis maritima (Raf.)Raf. ****
smallflower false foxglove Agalinis paupercula (Gray)Britt. ****
purple false foxglove Agalinis purpurea (L.)Pennell ****
slenderleaf false foxglove Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl)Raf. ****
smooth yellow false foxglove Aureolaria flava (L.)Farw. ****
downy yellow false foxglove Aureolaria virginica (L.)Pennell ****
white turtlehead Chelone glabra L. ****
yellowseed false pimpernel Lindernia dubia (L.)Pennell ****
sharpwing monkeyflower Mimulus alatus Ait. ****
Allegheny monkeyflower Mimulus ringens L. ****
Canadian lousewort Pedicularis canadensis L. ****
swamp lousewort Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. ****
carpenter’s square Scrophularia marilandica L. ****
Culver’s root Veronicastrum virginicum (L.)Farw. ****
fernleaf yellow false foxglove Aureolaria pedicularia (L.)Raf. **
scarlet Indian paintbrush Castilleja coccinea (L.)Spreng. **
golden hedgehyssop Gratiola aurea Pursh **
clammy hedgehyssop Gratiola neglecta Torr. **
Welsh mudwort Limosella australis R.Br. **
narrowleaf cowwheat Melampyrum lineare Desr. **
hairy beardtongue Penstemon hirsutus (L.)Willd. **
lanceleaf figwort Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh **
American speedwell Veronica americana Schwein.exBenth. **
neckweed Veronica peregrina L. **
skullcap speedwell Veronica scutellata L. **
Selaginellaceae meadow spikemoss Selaginella apoda (L.)Spring ****
northern selaginella Selaginella rupestris (L.)Spring ****
Smilacaceae cat greenbrier Smilax glauca Walt. ****
smooth carrionflower Smilax herbacea L. ****
roundleaf greenbrier Smilax rotundifolia L. ****
Solanaceae clammy groundcherry Physalis heterophylla Nees ****
Virginia groundcherry Physalis virginiana P.Mill. ****
longleaf groundcherry Physalis longifolia Nutt. ***
husk tomato Physalis pubescens L. **
Sparganiaceae branched bur-reed Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.)Morong ****
American bur-reed Sparganium americanum Nutt. **
broadfruit bur-reed Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm.exGray **
Staphyleaceae American bladdernut Staphylea trifolia L. ****
Taxaceae Canada yew Taxus canadensis Marsh. ****
Thelypteridaceae long beechfern Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.)Watt ****
broad beechfern Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.)Fée ****
New York fern Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.)Nieuwl. ****
eastern marsh fern Thelypteris palustris Schott ****
bog fern Thelypteris simulata (Davenport)Nieuwl. **
Thymelaeaceae eastern leatherwood Dirca palustris L. ****
Tiliaceae American basswood Tilia americana L. ****
Typhaceae broadleaf cattail Typha latifolia L. ****
Ulmaceae common hackberry Celtis occidentalis L. ****
American elm Ulmus americana L. ****
slippery elm Ulmus rubra Muhl. ****
Urticaceae smallspike false nettle Boehmeria cylindrica (L.)Sw. ****
Canadian woodnettle Laportea canadensis (L.)Weddell ****
Pennsylvania pellitory Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl.exWilld. ****
Canadian clearweed Pilea pumila (L.)Gray ****
California nettle Urtica dioica L.ssp.gracilis(Ait.)Seland. **
Verbenaceae American lopseed Phryma leptostachya L. ****
swamp verbena Verbena hastata L. ****
narrowleaf vervain Verbena simplex Lehm. ****
white vervain Verbena urticifolia L. ****
Violaceae marsh blue violet Viola cucullata Ait. ****
bog white violet Viola lanceolata L. ****
early blue violet Viola palmata L. ****
birdfoot violet Viola pedata L. ****
downy yellow violet Viola pubescens Ait. ****
arrowleaf violet Viola sagittata Ait. ****
common blue violet Viola sororia Willd. ****
sand violet Viola affinis LeConte **
sweet white violet Viola blanda Willd. **
Canadian white violet Viola canadensis L. **
American dog violet Viola conspersa Reichenb. **
smooth white violet Viola macloskeyi Lloydssp.pallens(BanksexGing)M.S.Baker **
roundleaf yellow violet Viola rotundifolia Michx. **
striped cream violet Viola striata Ait. **
Viscaceae oak mistletoe Phoradendron leucarpum (Raf.)Reveal&M.C.Johnston **
Vitaceae Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.)Planch. ****
summer grape Vitis aestivalis Michx. ****
fox grape Vitis labrusca L. ****
riverbank grape Vitis riparia Michx. ****
Xyridaceae bog yelloweyed grass Xyris difformis Chapman **
slender yelloweyed grass Xyris torta Sm. **
Zannichelliaceae horned pondweed Zannichellia palustris L. **
Zosteraceae seawrack Zostera marina L. ****