Flora and Fauna of Mannahatta

The flora and fauna list of native plants and vertebrate animals possibly found on Mannahatta in September 1609 is based on analysis of historical records, species lists and habitat relationships. Notes on methods and sources can be found in Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (Abrams 2009).

 

Species are organized by family and by likelihood that the species might have been found either on the island or within one-thousand meters of the shore. Click on the scientific name to learn more about the ecology of the species.

Key to Likelihood: **** = likely; *** = probable; ** = possible; ° = remotely possible

 
Family Name Common Name Scientific Name Likelihood
 
Acanthaceae American Water-willow Justicia americana **
Aceraceae Boxelder Acer negundo ****
Red Maple Acer rubrum ****
Silver Maple Acer saccharinum ****
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum ****
Black Maple Acer nigrum **
Striped Maple Acer pensylvanicum **
Acoraceae Sweetflag Acorus americanus ****
Alismataceae Northern Water Plantain Alisma triviale ****
Grassy Arrowhead Sagittaria graminea ****
Broadleaf Arrowhead Sagittaria latifolia ****
Hooded Arrowhead Sagittaria calycina **
Awl-leaf Arrowhead Sagittaria subulata **
Amaranthaceae Tidalmarsh Amaranth Amaranthus cannabinus **
Seaside Amaranth Amaranthus pumilus **
Anacardiaceae Fragrant Sumac Rhus aromatica ****
Flameleaf Sumac Rhus copallinum ****
Eastern Poison Ivy Toxicodendron radicans ****
Poison Sumac Toxicodendron vernix ****
Apiaceae Spotted Water Hemlock Cicuta maculata ****
Eastern Grasswort Lilaeopsis chinensis ****
Purple Meadowparsnip Thaspium trifoliatum ****
Purplestem Angelica Angelica atropurpurea **
Hairy Angelica Angelica venenosa **
Bulblet-bearing Water Hemlock Cicuta bulbifera **
Canadian Honewort Cryptotaenia canadensis **
Rattlesnakemaster Eryngium aquaticum **
Common Cowparsnip Heracleum maximum **
American Marshpennywort Hydrocotyle americana **
Manyflower Marshpennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata **
Longstyle Sweetroot Osmorhiza longistylis **
Stiff Cowbane Oxypolis rigidior **
Herbwilliam Ptilimnium capillaceum **
Canadian Blacksnakeroot Sanicula canadensis **
Maryland Sanicle Sanicula marilandica **
Hemlock waterparsnip Sium suave **
Yellow Pimpernel Taenidia integerrima **
Meadow Zizia Zizia aptera **
Golden Zizia Zizia aurea **
Apocynaceae Spreading Dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium ****
Indianhemp Apocynum cannabinum ****
Aquifoliaceae Smooth Winterberry Ilex laevigata ****
Mountain Holly Ilex montana ****
Common Winterberry Ilex verticillata ****
Inkberry Ilex glabra **
Araceae Green Dragon Arisaema dracontium ****
Jack in the Pulpit Arisaema triphyllum ****
Goldenclub Orontium aquaticum ****
Skunk Cabbage Symplocarpus foetidus ****
Green Arrow Arum Peltandra virginica **
Araliaceae Wild Sarsaparilla Aralia nudicaulis ****
American Spikenard Aralia racemosa ****
American Ginseng Panax quinquefolius ****
Bristly Sarsaparilla Aralia hispida **
Dwarf Ginseng Panax trifolius **
Aristolochiaceae Canadian Wildginger Asarum canadense **
Asclepiadaceae Swamp Milkweed Asclepias incarnata ****
Purple Milkweed Asclepias purpurascens ****
Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca ****
Butterfly Milkweed Asclepias tuberosa ****
Redring Milkweed Asclepias variegata ****
Clasping Milkweed Asclepias amplexicaulis **
Poke Milkweed Asclepias exaltata **
Fourleaf Milkweed Asclepias quadrifolia **
Red Milkweed Asclepias rubra **
Whorled Milkweed Asclepias verticillata **
Green Comet Milkweed Asclepias viridiflora **
Aspleniaceae Ebony Spleenwort Asplenium platyneuron ****
Walking Fern Asplenium rhizophyllum ****
Maidenhair Spleenwort Asplenium trichomanes ****
Wallrue Asplenium ruta-muraria **
Asteraceae Annual Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia ****
Great Ragweed Ambrosia trifida ****
Western Pearly Everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea ****
Field Pussytoes Antennaria neglecta ****
Woman’s Tobacco Antennaria plantaginifolia ****
Eastern Baccharis Baccharis halimifolia ****
Spanish Needles Bidens bipinnata ****
Nodding Beggartick Bidens cernua ****
Purplestem Beggarticks Bidens connata ****
Crowned Beggarticks Bidens coronata ****
Devil’s Beggartick Bidens frondosa ****
Maryland Goldenaster Chrysopsis mariana ****
Yellow Thistle Cirsium horridulum ****
Swamp Thistle Cirsium muticum ****
Pasture Thistle Cirsium pumilum ****
Canadian Horseweed Conyza canadensis ****
American Burnweed Erechtites hieraciifolia ****
Eastern Daisy Fleabane Erigeron annuus ****
Philadelphia Fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus ****
Prairie Fleabane Erigeron strigosus ****
Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort Eupatorium hyssopifolium ****
Spotted Joepyeweed Eupatorium maculatum ****
Common Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum ****
Sweetscented Joepyeweed Eupatorium purpureum ****
Roundleaf Thoroughwort Eupatorium rotundifolium ****
White Wood Aster Eurybia divaricata ****
Bigleaf Aster Eurybia macrophylla ****
Flat-top Goldentop Euthamia graminifolia ****
Slender Goldentop Euthamia tenuifolia ****
Thinleaf Sunflower Helianthus decapetalus ****
Giant Sunflower Helianthus giganteus ****
Queendevil Hieracium gronovii ****
Allegheny Hawkweed Hieracium paniculatum ****
Rough Hawkweed Hieracium scabrum ****
Rattlesnakeweed Hieracium venosum ****
Flaxleaf Whitetop Aster Ionactis linariifolius ****
Jesuit’s Bark Iva frutescens ****
Tall Blue Lettuce Lactuca biennis ****
Canada Lettuce Lactuca canadensis ****
Devil’s Bite Liatris scariosa ****
Climbing Hempvine Mikania scandens ****
Whorled Wood Aster Oclemena acuminata ****
Stiff Goldenrod Oligoneuron rigidum ****
Golden Ragwort Packera aurea ****
Sweetscent Pluchea odorata ****
Tall Rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes altissima ****
Rabbittobacco Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium ****
Narrowleaf Whitetop Aster Sericocarpus linifolius ****
White Goldenrod Solidago bicolor ****
Canada Goldenrod Solidago canadensis ****
Zigzag Goldenrod Solidago flexicaulis ****
Gray Goldenrod Solidago nemoralis ****
Anisescented Goldenrod Solidago odora ****
Roundleaf Goldenrod Solidago patula ****
Seaside Goldenrod Solidago sempervirens ****
Showy Goldenrod Solidago speciosa ****
Common Blue Wood Aster Symphyotrichum cordifolium ****
White Heath Aster Symphyotrichum ericoides ****
White Panicle Aster Symphyotrichum lanceolatum lanceolatum ****
Lowrie’s Blue Wood Aster Symphyotrichum lowrieanum ****
New England Aster Symphyotrichum novae-angliae ****
New York Aster Symphyotrichum novi-belgii ****
Purplestem Aster Symphyotrichum puniceum ****
Smooth White Oldfield Aster Symphyotrichum racemosum ****
Shore Aster Symphyotrichum tradescantii ****
New York Ironweed Vernonia noveboracensis ****
Trumpetweed Eupatorium fistulosum ***
Kalm’s Hawkweed Hieracium kalmii ***
White Snakeroot Ageratina altissima **
Small Beggarticks Bidens discoidea **
Smooth Beggartick Bidens laevis **
Threelobe Beggarticks Bidens tripartita **
Tall Thistle Cirsium altissimum **
Field Thistle Cirsium discolor **
Blue Mistflower Conoclinium coelestinum **
Cornel-leaf Whitetop Doellingeria infirma **
Parasol Whitetop Doellingeria umbellata **
Robin’s Plantain Erigeron pulchellus **
White Thoroughwort Eupatorium album **
Justiceweed Eupatorium leucolepis **
Pine Barren Thoroughwort Eupatorium resinosum **
Low Rough Aster Eurybia radula **
Western Showy Aster Eurybia spectabilis **
Spoonleaf Purple Everlasting Gamochaeta purpurea **
Common Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale **
Swamp Sunflower Helianthus angustifolius **
Woodland Sunflower Helianthus divaricatus **
Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower Helianthus strumosus **
Smooth Oxeye Heliopsis helianthoides **
Canadian Hawkweed Hieracium canadense **
Twoflower Dwarfdandelion Krigia biflora **
Virginia Dwarfdandelion Krigia virginica **
Woodland Lettuce Lactuca floridana **
Hairy Lettuce Lactuca hirsuta **
Dense Blazing Star Liatris spicata **
Bog Aster Oclemena nemoralis **
Roundleaf Ragwort Packera obovata **
Balsam Groundsel Packera paupercula **
Sickleleaf Silkgrass Pityopsis falcata **
White Rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes alba **
Purple Rattlesnakeroot Prenanthes racemosa **
Cankerweed Prenanthes serpentaria **
Gall of the Earth Prenanthes trifoliolata **
Cutleaf Coneflower Rudbeckia laciniata **
Toothed Whitetop Aster Sericocarpus asteroides **
Atlantic Goldenrod Solidago arguta **
Wreath Goldenrod Solidago caesia **
Giant Goldenrod Solidago gigantea **
Hairy Goldenrod Solidago hispida **
Early Goldenrod Solidago juncea **
Elliott’s Goldenrod Solidago latissimifolia **
Downy Goldenrod Solidago puberula **
Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod Solidago rugosa **
Stout Goldenrod Solidago squarrosa **
Bog Goldenrod Solidago uliginosa **
Elmleaf Goldenrod Solidago ulmifolia **
Rice Button Aster Symphyotrichum dumosum **
Smooth Blue Aster Symphyotrichum laeve **
Calico Aster Symphyotrichum lateriflorum **
Late Purple Aster Symphyotrichum patens **
Pringle’s Aster Symphyotrichum pilosum **
Willowleaf Aster Symphyotrichum praealtum **
Eastern Annual Saltmarsh Aster Symphyotrichum subulatum **
Perennial Saltmarsh Aster Symphyotrichum tenuifolium **
Waxyleaf Aster Symphyotrichum undulatum **
Wingstem Verbesina alternifolia **
Azollaceae Carolina Mosquitofern Azolla caroliniana **
Balsaminaceae Jewelweed Impatiens capensis ****
Pale Touch-me-not Impatiens pallida ****
Berberidaceae Blue Cohosh Caulophyllum thalictroides ****
Mayapple Podophyllum peltatum ****
Betulaceae Speckled Alder Alnus incana rugosa ****
Hazel Alder Alnus serrulata ****
Yellow Birch Betula alleghaniensis ****
Sweet Birch Betula lenta ****
River Birch Betula nigra ****
Paper Birch Betula papyrifera ****
Gray Birch Betula populifolia ****
American Hornbeam Carpinus caroliniana ****
American Hazelnut Corylus americana ****
Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana ****
Beaked Hazelnut Corylus cornuta **
Blechnaceae Netted Chainfern Woodwardia areolata ****
Virginia Chainfern Woodwardia virginica ****
Boraginaceae Spring Forget-me-not Myosotis verna ****
Wild Job’s Tears Onosmodium virginianum ****
Wild Comfrey Cynoglossum virginianum **
Beggarslice Hackelia virginiana **
Virginia Bluebells Mertensia virginica **
Bay Forget-me-not Myosotis laxa **
Brassicaceae Sicklepod Arabis canadensis ****
Tower Rockcress Arabis glabra ****
Smooth Rockcress Arabis laevigata ****
Bulbous Bittercress Cardamine bulbosa ****
Cutleaf Toothwort Cardamine concatenata ****
Crinkleroot Cardamine diphylla ****
Sand Bittercress Cardamine parviflora ****
Carolina Draba Draba reptans ****
Hairy Rockcress Arabis hirsuta **
Lyrate Rockcress Arabis lyrata **
American Searocket Cakile edentula **
Pennsylvania Bittercress Cardamine pensylvanica **
Cuckoo Flower Cardamine pratensis **
Bog Yellowcress Rorippa palustris **
Cabombaceae Watershield Brasenia schreberi **
Cactaceae Devil’s-tongue Opuntia humifusa ****
Callitrichaceae Northern Water-starwort Callitriche hermaphroditica ****
Twoheaded Water-starwort Callitriche heterophylla **
Vernal Water-starwort Callitriche palustris **
Terrestrial Water-starwort Callitriche terrestris **
Campanulaceae Cardinalflower Lobelia cardinalis ****
Indian-tobacco Lobelia inflata ****
Ontario Lobelia Lobelia kalmii ****
Nuttall’s Lobelia Lobelia nuttallii ****
Great Blue Lobelia Lobelia siphilitica ****
Palespike Lobelia Lobelia spicata ****
Clasping Venus’ Looking-glass Triodanis perfoliata ****
Marsh Bellflower Campanula aparinoides **
American Bellflower Campanulastrum americanum **
Capparaceae Redwhisker Clammyweed Polanisia dodecandra **
Caprifoliaceae Northern Bush Honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera ****
Limber Honeysuckle Lonicera dioica ****
Trumpet Honeysuckle Lonicera sempervirens ****
Common Elderberry Sambucus nigra canadensis ****
Feverwort Triosteum perfoliatum ****
Mapleleaf Viburnum Viburnum acerifolium ****
Southern Arrowwood Viburnum dentatum ****
Hobblebush Viburnum lantanoides ****
Blackhaw Viburnum prunifolium ****
Orangefruit Horse-gentian Triosteum aurantiacum ***
Twinflower Linnaea borealis **
Red Elderberry Sambucus racemosa **
Nannyberry Viburnum lentago **
Possumhaw Viburnum nudum **
Caryophyllaceae Seaside Sandplant Honckenya peploides ****
Sleepy Silene Silene antirrhina ****
Pennsylvania Catchfly Silene caroliniana pensylvanica ****
Widowsfrill Silene stellata ****
Nodding Chickweed Cerastium nutans **
Pinebarren Stitchwort Minuartia caroliniana **
Bluntleaf Sandwort Moehringia lateriflora **
Smooth Forked Nailwort Paronychia canadensis **
Trailing Pearlwort Sagina decumbens **
Bog Chickweed Stellaria alsine **
Longleaf Starwort Stellaria longifolia **
Celastraceae American Bittersweet Celastrus scandens ****
Strawberry Bush Euonymus americana ****
Eastern Wahoo Euonymus atropurpurea **
Running Strawberry Bush Euonymus obovata **
Ceratophyllaceae Coon’s Tail Ceratophyllum demersum **
Spineless Hornwort Ceratophyllum echinatum **
Chenopodiaceae Crested Saltbush Atriplex cristata ****
Mapleleaf Goosefoot Chenopodium simplex ****
Chickenclaws Sarcocornia perennis ****
Red Goosefoot Chenopodium rubrum **
Standley’s Goosefoot Chenopodium standleyanum **
Dwarf saltwort Salicornia bigelovii **
Annual Seepweed Suaeda linearis **
Cistaceae Hairy Pinweed Lechea mucronata ****
Illinois Pinweed Lechea racemulosa ****
Hoary Frostweed Helianthemum bicknellii **
Longbranch Frostweed Helianthemum canadense **
Pinebarren Goldenheather Hudsonia ericoides **
Woolly Beachheather Hudsonia tomentosa **
Largepod Pinweed Lechea intermedia **
Beach Pinweed Lechea maritima **
Thymeleaf Pinweed Lechea minor **
Leggett’s Pinweed Lechea pulchella **
Narrowleaf Pinweed Lechea tenuifolia **
Clethraceae Coastal Sweetpepperbush Clethra alnifolia ****
Clusiaceae Lesser Canadian St. Johnswort Hypericum canadense ****
Spotted St. Johnswort Hypericum punctatum ****
Virginia Marsh St. Johnswort Triadenum virginicum ****
Pale St. Johnswort Hypericum ellipticum **
Orangegrass Hypericum gentianoides **
Large St. Johnswort Hypericum majus **
Dwarf St. Johnswort Hypericum mutilum **
Commelinaceae Whitemouth Dayflower Commelina erecta ****
Convolvulaceae Low False Bindweed Calystegia spithamaea ****
Man of the Earth Ipomoea pandurata ****
Cornaceae Alternateleaf Dogwood Cornus alternifolia ****
Silky Dogwood Cornus amomum ****
Flowering Dogwood Cornus florida ****
Stiff Dogwood Cornus foemina ****
Gray Dogwood Cornus racemosa ****
Roundleaf Dogwood Cornus rugosa ****
Redosier Dogwood Cornus sericea ****
Bunchberry Dogwood Cornus canadensis **
Crassulaceae Ditch Stonecrop Penthorum sedoides ****
Cucurbitaceae Wild Cucumber Echinocystis lobata ****
Oneseed Burr Cucumber Sicyos angulatus ****
Cupressaceae Atlantic White Cedar Chamaecyparis thyoides ****
Eastern Redcedar Juniperus virginiana ****
Common juniper Juniperus communis **
Cuscutaceae Scaldweed Cuscuta gronovii ****
Fiveangled Dodder Cuscuta pentagona ***
Buttonbush Dodder Cuscuta cephalanthi **
Compact Dodder Cuscuta compacta **
Hazel Dodder Cuscuta coryli **
Cyperaceae Densetuft Hairsedge Bulbostylis capillaris ****
Thicket Sedge Carex abscondita ****
Emmons’ Sedge Carex albicans ****
Oval-leaf Sedge Carex cephalophora ****
Bristleleaf Sedge Carex eburnea ****
Hitchcock’s Sedge Carex hitchcockiana ****
Hop Sedge Carex lupulina ****
Muhlenberg’s Sedge Carex muehlenbergii ****
Pennsylvania Sedge Carex pensylvanica ****
Broadleaf Sedge Carex platyphylla ****
Schweinitz’s Sedge Carex schweinitzii ****
Squarrose Sedge Carex squarrosa ****
Parasol Sedge Carex umbellata ****
Fox Sedge Carex vulpinoidea ****
Globe Flatsedge Cyperus echinatus ****
Great Plains Flatsedge Cyperus lupulinus ****
Fragrant Flatsedge Cyperus odoratus ****
Bearded Flatsedge Cyperus squarrosus ****
Strawcolored Flatsedge Cyperus strigosus ****
Threeway Sedge Dulichium arundinaceum ****
Elliptic Spikerush Eleocharis elliptica ****
Bald Spikerush Eleocharis erythropoda ****
Dwarf Spikerush Eleocharis parvula ****
Beaked Spikerush Eleocharis rostellata ****
Hairy Umbrella-sedge Fuirena squarrosa ****
White Beaksedge Rhynchospora alba ****
Brownish Beaksedge Rhynchospora capitellata ****
Chairmaker’s Bulrush Schoenoplectus americanus ****
River Bulrush Schoenoplectus fluviatilis ****
Softstem Bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani ****
Woodland Bulrush Scirpus expansus ****
Whip Nutrush Scleria triglomerata ****
Bashful Bulrush Trichophorum planifolium ****
Thinleaf Sedge Carex cephaloidea ***
New England Bulrush Schoenoplectus novae-angliae ***
Panicled Bulrush Scirpus microcarpus ***
Broadwing Sedge Carex alata **
Greenwhite Sedge Carex albolutescens **
White Bear Sedge Carex albursina **
Eastern Narrowleaf Sedge Carex amphibola **
Yellowfruit Sedge Carex annectens **
Water Sedge Carex aquatilis **
Hay Sedge Carex argyrantha **
Prickly Bog Sedge Carex atlantica capillacea **
Barratt’s Sedge Carex barrattii **
Eastern Woodland Sedge Carex blanda **
Bromelike Sedge Carex bromoides **
Button Sedge Carex bullata **
Bush’s Sedge Carex bushii **
Buxbaum’s Sedge Carex buxbaumii **
Silvery Sedge Carex canescens **
Fibrousroot Sedge Carex communis **
Longhair Sedge Carex comosa **
Hirsute Sedge Carex complanata **
Openfield Sedge Carex conoidea **
Fringed Sedge Carex crinita **
White Edge Sedge Carex debilis **
Slender Woodland Sedge Carex digitalis **
Softleaf Sedge Carex disperma **
Star Sedge Carex echinata **
Thinfruit Sedge Carex flaccosperma **
Dryspike Sedge Carex foenea **
Northern Long Sedge Carex folliculata **
Graceful Sedge Carex gracillima **
Limestone Meadow Sedge Carex granularis **
Gray’s Sedge Carex grayi **
Nodding Sedge Carex gynandra **
Fuzzy Wuzzy Sedge Carex hirsutella **
Pubescent Sedge Carex hirtifolia **
Bottlebrush Sedge Carex hystericina **
Greater Bladder Sedge Carex intumescens **
Spreading Sedge Carex laxiculmis **
Broad Looseflower Sedge Carex laxiflora **
Bristlystalked Sedge Carex leptalea **
False Hop Sedge Carex lupuliformis **
Shallow Sedge Carex lurida **
Black Edge Sedge Carex nigromarginata **
Greater Straw Sedge Carex normalis **
Pale Sedge Carex pallescens **
Woolly Sedge Carex pellita **
Variable Sedge Carex polymorpha **
Drooping Sedge Carex prasina **
Cypresslike Sedge Carex pseudocyperus **
Reflexed Sedge Carex retroflexa **
Knotsheath Sedge Carex retrorsa **
Rosy Sedge Carex rosea **
Eastern Rough Sedge Carex scabrata **
Broom Sedge Carex scoparia Schkuhr **
Beach Sedge Carex silicea **
Burr Reed Sedge Carex sparganioides **
Dioecious Sedge Carex sterilis **
Owlfruit Sedge Carex stipata **
Eastern Straw Sedge Carex straminea **
Upright Sedge Carex stricta **
Bent Sedge Carex styloflexa **
Swan’s Sedge Carex swanii **
Rigid Sedge Carex tetanica **
Blunt Broom Sedge Carex tribuloides **
Hairyfruit Sedge Carex trichocarpa **
Threeseeded Sedge Carex trisperma **
Velvet Sedge Carex vestita **
Ribbed Sedge Carex virescens **
Willdenow’s Sedge Carex willdenowii **
Smooth Sawgrass Cladium mariscoides **
Slender Flatsedge Cyperus bipartitus **
Toothed Flatsedge Cyperus dentatus **
Umbrella Flatsedge Cyperus diandrus **
Redroot Flatsedge Cyperus erythrorhizos **
Yellow Flatsedge Cyperus flavescens **
Gray’s Flatsedge Cyperus grayi **
Needle Spikerush Eleocharis acicularis **
Engelmann’s Spikerush Eleocharis engelmannii **
Blackfruit Spikerush Eleocharis melanocarpa **
Blunt Spikerush Eleocharis obtusa **
Bright Green Spikerush Eleocharis olivacea **
Ovate Spikerush Eleocharis ovata **
Common Spikerush Eleocharis palustris **
Squarestem Spikerush Eleocharis quadrangulata **
Cone-cup Spikerush Eleocharis tuberculosa **
Slender Cottongrass Eriophorum gracile **
Tawny Cottongrass Eriophorum virginicum **
Slender Fimbry Fimbristylis autumnalis **
Marsh Fimbry Fimbristylis castanea **
Brown Beaksedge Rhynchospora fusca **
Common Threesquare Schoenoplectus pungens **
Weakstalk Bulrush Schoenoplectus purshianus **
Sturdy Bulrush Schoenoplectus robustus **
Torrey’s Bulrush Schoenoplectus torreyi **
Woolgrass Scirpus cyperinus **
Rufous Bulrush Scirpus pendulus **
Leafy Bulrush Scirpus polyphyllus **
Netted Nutrush Scleria reticularis **
Low Nutrush Scleria verticillata **
Dennstaedtiaceae Eastern Hayscented Fern Dennstaedtia punctilobula ****
Western Brackenfern Pteridium aquilinum ****
Dioscoreaceae Wild Yam Dioscorea villosa ****
Droseraceae Threadleaf Sundew Drosera filiformis **
Spoonleaf Sundew Drosera intermedia **
Roundleaf Sundew Drosera rotundifolia **
Dryopteridaceae Common Ladyfern Athyrium filix-femina ****
Bulblet Bladderfern Cystopteris bulbifera ****
Brittle Bladderfern Cystopteris fragilis ****
Silver False Spleenwort Deparia acrostichoides ****
Spinulose Woodfern Dryopteris carthusiana ****
Crested Woodfern Dryopteris cristata ****
Intermediate Woodfern Dryopteris intermedia ****
Marginal Woodfern Dryopteris marginalis ****
Ostrich Fern Matteuccia struthiopteris ****
Sensitive Fern Onoclea sensibilis ****
Christmas Fern Polystichum acrostichoides ****
Rusty Woodsia Woodsia ilvensis ****
Bluntlobe Cliff Fern Woodsia obtusa ****
Mountain Woodfern Dryopteris campyloptera **
Clinton’s Woodfern Dryopteris clintoniana **
Goldie’s Woodfern Dryopteris goldiana **
Western Oakfern Gymnocarpium dryopteris **
Ebenaceae Common Persimmon Diospyros virginiana ****
Elatinaceae American Waterwort Elatine americana **
Equisetaceae Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense ****
Scouringrush Horsetail Equisetum hyemale ****
Water Horsetail Equisetum fluviatile **
Woodland Horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum **
Ericaceae Creeping Snowberry Gaultheria hispidula ****
Eastern Teaberry Gaultheria procumbens ****
Black Huckleberry Gaylussacia baccata ****
Blue Huckleberry Gaylussacia frondosa ****
Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia ****
Swamp Doghobble Leucothoe racemosa ****
Maleberry Lyonia ligustrina ****
Piedmont Staggerbush Lyonia mariana ****
Swamp Azalea Rhododendron viscosum ****
Lowbush Blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium ****
Highbush Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum ****
Cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon ****
Blue Ridge Blueberry Vaccinium pallidum ****
Deerberry Vaccinium stamineum ****
Kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi **
Leatherleaf Chamaedaphne calyculata **
Trailing Arbutus Epigaea repens **
Dwarf Huckleberry Gaylussacia dumosa **
Sheep Laurel Kalmia angustifolia **
Rhodora Rhododendron canadense **
Great Laurel Rhododendron maximum **
Eriocaulaceae Sevenangle Pipewort Eriocaulon aquaticum **
Euphorbiaceae Slender Threeseed Mercury Acalypha gracilens ****
Virginia Threeseed Mercury Acalypha virginica ****
Spotted Sandmat Chamaesyce maculata ****
Eyebane Chamaesyce nutans ****
Seaside Sandmat Chamaesyce polygonifolia ****
Wormseed Sandmat Chamaesyce vermiculata ***
Ribseed Sandmat Chamaesyce glyptosperma **
Flowering Spurge Euphorbia corollata **
American Ipecac Euphorbia ipecacuanhae **
Fabaceae American Hogpeanut Amphicarpaea bracteata ****
Groundnut Apios americana ****
Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis ****
Sleepingplant Chamaecrista fasciculata ****
Partridge Pea Chamaecrista nictitans ****
Arrowhead Rattlebox Crotalaria sagittalis ****
Showy Ticktrefoil Desmodium canadense ****
Hoary Ticktrefoil Desmodium canescens ****
Dillenius’ Ticktrefoil Desmodium glabellum ****
Smooth Ticktrefoil Desmodium laevigatum ****
Smooth Small-leaf Ticktrefoil Desmodium marilandicum ****
Nakedflower Ticktrefoil Desmodium nudiflorum ****
Nuttall’s Ticktrefoil Desmodium nuttallii ****
Stiff Ticktrefoil Desmodium obtusum ****
Panicledleaf Ticktrefoil Desmodium paniculatum ****
Prostrate Ticktrefoil Desmodium rotundifolium ****
Downy Milkpea Galactia volubilis ****
Marsh Pea Lathyrus palustris ****
Roundhead Lespedeza Lespedeza capitata ****
Hairy Lespedeza Lespedeza hirta ****
Trailing Lespedeza Lespedeza procumbens ****
Violet Lespedeza Lespedeza violacea ****
Thicket Bean Phaseolus polystachios ****
Trailing Fuzzybean Strophostyles helvula ****
Carolina Vetch Vicia caroliniana ****
Horseflyweed Baptisia tinctoria **
Atlantic Pigeonwings Clitoria mariana **
Hairy Small-leaf Ticktrefoil Desmodium ciliare **
Largebract Ticktrefoil Desmodium cuspidatum **
Pointedleaf Ticktrefoil Desmodium glutinosum **
Beach Pea Lathyrus japonicus **
Narrowleaf Lespedeza Lespedeza angustifolia **
Creeping Lespedeza Lespedeza repens **
Tall Lespedeza Lespedeza stuevei **
Sundial Lupine Lupinus perennis **
American Senna Senna hebecarpa **
Pink Fuzzybean Strophostyles umbellata **
Virginia Tephrosia Tephrosia virginiana **
Fagaceae American Chestnut Castanea dentata ****
American Beech Fagus grandifolia ****
White Oak Quercus alba ****
Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor ****
Scarlet Oak Quercus coccinea ****
Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa ****
Pin Oak Quercus palustris ****
Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Quercus prinoides ****
Chestnut Oak Quercus prinus ****
Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra ****
Post Oak Quercus stellata ****
Black Oak Quercus velutina ****
Blackjack Oak Quercus marilandica **
Willow Oak Quercus phellos **
Fumariaceae Rock Harlequin Corydalis sempervirens ****
Dutchman’s Breeches Dicentra cucullaria ****
Yellow Fumewort Corydalis flavula **
Squirrel Corn Dicentra canadensis **
Gentianaceae Twining Screwstem Bartonia paniculata ****
Closed Bottle Gentian Gentiana andrewsii ****
Harvestbells Gentiana saponaria ****
Greater Fringed Gentian Gentianopsis crinita ****
Rosepink Sabatia angularis ****
Slender Rose Gentian Sabatia campanulata ****
Marsh Rose Gentian Sabatia dodecandra ****
Yellow Screwstem Bartonia virginica **
Rose of Plymouth Sabatia stellaris **
Geraniaceae Carolina Geranium Geranium carolinianum ****
Spotted Geranium Geranium maculatum ****
Grossulariaceae American Black Currant Ribes americanum ****
Eastern Prickly Gooseberry Ribes cynosbati **
Hairystem Gooseberry Ribes hirtellum **
Appalachian Gooseberry Ribes rotundifolium **
Haloragaceae Marsh Mermaidweed Proserpinaca palustris ****
Low Watermilfoil Myriophyllum humile **
Cutleaf Watermilfoil Myriophyllum pinnatum **
Slender Watermilfoil Myriophyllum tenellum **
Hamamelidaceae American Witchhazel Hamamelis virginiana ****
Sweetgum Liquidambar styraciflua ****
Hydrangeaceae Wild Hydrangea Hydrangea arborescens **
Hydrocharitaceae Canadian Waterweed Elodea canadensis **
American Eelgrass Vallisneria americana **
Hydrophyllaceae Bluntleaf Waterleaf Hydrophyllum canadense ****
Shawnee Salad Hydrophyllum virginianum **
Iridaceae Common Goldstar Hypoxis hirsuta ****
Harlequin Blueflag Iris versicolor ****
Narrowleaf Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium angustifolium ****
Slender Blue Iris Iris prismatica **
Eastern Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium atlanticum **
Coastalplain Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium fuscatum **
Needletip Blue-eyed Grass Sisyrinchium mucronatum **
Isoetaceae Appalachian Quillwort Isoetes engelmannii **
Shore Quillwort Isoetes riparia **
Juglandaceae Mockernut Hickory Carya alba ****
Bitternut Hickory Carya cordiformis ****
Pignut Hickory Carya glabra ****
Shellbark Hickory Carya laciniosa ****
Red Hickory Carya ovalis ****
Shagbark Hickory Carya ovata ****
Butternut Juglans cinerea ****
Black Walnut Juglans nigra ****
Juncaceae Tapertip Rush Juncus acuminatus ****
Jointleaf Rush Juncus articulatus ****
Common Rush Juncus effusus ****
Saltmeadow Rush Juncus gerardii ****
Grassleaf Rush Juncus marginatu ****
Knotted Rush Juncus nodosus ****
Poverty Rush Juncus tenuis ****
Torrey’s Rush Juncus torreyi ****
Baltic Rush Juncus balticus **
bog Rush Juncus biflorus **
toad Rush Juncus bufonius **
Canadian Rush Juncus canadensis **
Weak Rush Juncus debilis **
Forked Rush Juncus dichotomus **
Brownfruit Rush Juncus pelocarpus **
Needlepod Rush Juncus scirpoides **
Lopsided Rush Juncus secundus **
Hairy Woodrush Luzula acuminata **
Juncaginaceae Seaside Arrowgrass Triglochin maritimum ****
Lamiaceae Yellow Giant Hyssop Agastache nepetoides ****
Richweed Collinsonia canadensis ****
Northern Bugleweed Lycopus uniflorus ****
Basil Mountainmint Pycnanthemum clinopodioides ****
Hoary Mountainmint Pycnanthemum incanum ****
Clustered Mountainmint Pycnanthemum muticum ****
Narrowleaf Mountainmint Pycnanthemum tenuifolium ****
Torrey’s Mountainmint Pycnanthemum torrei ****
Virginia Mountainmint Pycnanthemum virginianum ****
Lyreleaf Sage Salvia lyrata ****
Hairy Skullcap Scutellaria elliptica ****
Marsh Skullcap Scutellaria galericulata ****
Blue Skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora ****
Hyssopleaf Hedgenettle Stachys hyssopifolia ****
Smooth Hedgenettle Stachys tenuifolia ****
Canada Germander Teucrium canadense ****
Forked Bluecurls Trichostema dichotomum ****
Purple Giant Hyssop Agastache scrophulariifolia **
Common Dittany Cunila origanoides **
American False Pennyroyal Hedeoma pulegioides **
American Water Horehound Lycopus americanus **
Clasping Water Horehound Lycopus amplectens **
Taperleaf Water Horehound Lycopus rubellus **
Virginia Water Horehound Lycopus virginicus **
Scarlet Beebalm Monarda didyma **
Wild Bergamot Monarda fistulosa **
Spotted Beebalm Monarda punctata **
Whorled Mountainmint Pycnanthemum verticillatum **
Helmet Flower Scutellaria integrifolia **
Marsh Hedgenettle Stachys palustris **
Narrowleaf Bluecurls Trichostema setaceum **
Lauraceae Northern Spicebush Lindera benzoin ****
Sassafras Sassafras albidum ****
Lemnaceae Common Duckweed Lemna minor ****
Minute Duckweed Lemna perpusilla **
Star Duckweed Lemna trisulca **
Valdivia Duckweed Lemna valdiviana **
Common Duckmeat Spirodela polyrrhiza **
Columbian Watermeal Wolffia columbiana **
Lentibulariaceae Hiddenfruit Bladderwort Utricularia geminiscapa **
Humped Bladderwort Utricularia gibba **
Common Bladderwort Utricularia macrorhiza **
Lesser Bladderwort Utricularia minor **
Eastern Purple Bladderwort Utricularia purpurea **
Striped Bladderwort Utricularia striata **
Liliaceae White Colicroot Aletris farinosa ****
Meadow Garlic Allium canadense ****
Fairywand Chamaelirium luteum ****
Dogtooth Violet Erythronium americanum ****
Canada Lily Lilium canadense ****
Wood Lily Lilium philadelphicum ****
Turk’s-cap Lily Lilium superbum ****
Canada Mayflower Maianthemum canadense ****
Feathery False Lily of the Vally Maianthemum racemosum ****
Indian Cucumber Medeola virginiana ****
Hairy Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum pubescens ****
Red Trillium Trillium erectum ****
Perfoliate Bellwort Uvularia perfoliata ****
Sessileleaf Bellwort Uvularia sessilifolia ****
Green False Hellebore Veratrum viride ****
Wild Leek Allium tricoccum **
Flypoison Amianthium muscitoxicum **
White Fawnlily Erythronium albidum **
Swamppink Helonias bullata **
Starry False Lily of the Vally Maianthemum stellatum **
Slender Bunchflower Melanthium latifolium **
Virginia Bunchflower Melanthium virginicum **
Smooth Solomon’s Seal Polygonatum biflorum **
Whip-poor-will Flower Trillium cernuum **
Painted Trillium Trillium undulatum **
Pinebarren Deathcamas Zigadenus leimanthoides **
Limnanthaceae False Mermaidweed Floerkea proserpinacoides **
Linaceae woodland Flax Linum virginianum ****
Ridged Yellow Flax Linum striatum **
Grooved Flax Linum sulcatum **
Lycopodiaceae Shining Clubmoss Huperzia lucidula ****
Groundcedar Lycopodium complanatum ****
Rare Clubmoss Lycopodium obscurum ****
Foxtail Clubmoss Lycopodiella alopecuroides **
Slender Clubmoss Lycopodiella caroliniana **
Inundated Clubmoss Lycopodiella inundata **
Stiff Clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum **
Running Clubmoss Lycopodium clavatum **
Lygodiaceae American Climbing Fern Lygodium palmatum **
Lythraceae Blue Waxweed Cuphea viscosissima ****
Swamp Loosestrife Decodon verticillatus **
Winged Lythrum Lythrum alatum **
Lowland Rotala Rotala ramosior **
Magnoliaceae Tuliptree Liriodendron tulipifera ****
Cucumber-tree Magnolia acuminata ***
Sweetbay Magnolia virginiana **
Malvaceae Crimsoneyed Rosemallow Hibiscus moscheutos ****
Melastomataceae Handsome Harry Rhexia virginica ****
Menispermaceae Common Moonseed Menispermum canadense ****
Monotropaceae Pinesap Monotropa hypopithys ****
Indianpipe Monotropa uniflora ****
Moraceae Red Mulberry Morus rubra ****
Myricaceae Sweet Fern Comptonia peregrina ****
Northern Bayberry Morella pensylvanica ****
Sweetgale Myrica gale **
Najadaceae Nodding Waternymph Najas flexilis **
Nymphaeaceae Yellow Pond-lily Nuphar lutea ****
American White Waterlily Nymphaea odorata odorata ****
Nyssaceae Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica ****
Oleaceae White Ash Fraxinus americana ****
Black Ash Fraxinus nigra ****
Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica ****
Onagraceae Broadleaf Enchanter’s Nightshade Circaea lutetiana ****
Purpleleaf Willowherb Epilobium coloratum ****
Bog Willowherb Epilobium leptophyllum ****
Marsh Willowherb Epilobium palustre ****
Seedbox Ludwigia alternifolia ****
Marsh Seedbox Ludwigia palustris ****
Common Evening-primrose Oenothera biennis ****
Northern Evening-primrose Oenothera parviflora ****
Cutleaf Evening-primrose Oenothera laciniata ***
Fireweed Chamerion angustifolium **
Downy Willowherb Epilobium strictum **
Globefruit Primrose-willow Ludwigia sphaerocarpa **
Narrowleaf Evening-primrose Oenothera fruticosa **
Little Evening-primrose Oenothera perennis **
Ophioglossaceae Cutleaf Grapefern Botrychium dissectum ****
Rattlesnake Fern Botrychium virginianum ****
Northern Adderstongue Ophioglossum pusillum ****
Lanceleaf Grapefern Botrychium lanceolatum **
Matricary Grapefern Botrychium matricariifolium **
Leathery Grapefern Botrychium multifidum **
Little Grapefern Botrychium simplex **
Orchidaceae Summer Coralroot Corallorrhiza maculata ****
Autumn Coralroot Corallorrhiza odontorhiza ****
Moccasin Flower Cypripedium acaule ****
Lesser Yellow Lady’s Slipper Cypripedium parviflorum ****
Showy Orchid Galearis spectabilis ****
Downy Rattlesnake plantain Goodyera pubescens ****
Brown Widelip Orchid Liparis liliifolia ****
Yellow Widelip Orchid Liparis loeselii ****
Yellow Fringed Orchid Platanthera ciliaris ****
Palegreen Orchid Platanthera flava ****
Green Fringed Orchid Platanthera lacera ****
Nodding Ladies’-tresses Spiranthes cernua ****
Northern Slender Ladies’-tresses Spiranthes lacera ****
Crippled Cranefly Tipularia discolor ****
Threebirds Triphora trianthophora ****
Adam and Eve Aplectrum hyemale **
Dragon’s Mouth Arethusa bulbosa **
Tuberous Grasspink Calopogon tuberosus **
Longbract Frog Orchid Coeloglossum viride **
Showy Lady’s Slipper Cypripedium reginae **
Purple Fiveleaf Orchid Isotria verticillata **
Heartleaf Twayblade Listera cordata **
Green Adder’s-mouth Orchid Malaxis unifolia **
White Fringed Orchid Platanthera blephariglottis **
Small Green Wood Orchid Platanthera clavellata **
Scentbottle Platanthera dilatata **
Lesser Purple Fringed Orchid Platanthera psycodes **
Snakemouth Orchid Pogonia ophioglossoides **
Little Ladies’-tresses Spiranthes tuberosa **
Spring Ladies’-tresses Spiranthes vernalis **
Orobanchaceae American Squawroot Conopholis americana ****
Beechdrops Epifagus virginiana ****
Oneflowered Broomrape Orobanche uniflora ****
Osmundaceae Cinnamon Fern Osmunda cinnamomea ****
Interrupted Fern Osmunda claytoniana ****
Royal Fern Osmunda regalis ****
Oxalidaceae Mountain Woodsorrel Oxalis montana ****
Common Yellow Oxalis Oxalis stricta ****
Violet Woodsorrel Oxalis violacea ****
Papaveraceae Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis ****
Phytolaccaceae American Pokeweed Phytolacca americana ****
Pinaceae Tamarack Larix laricina ****
Black Spruce Picea mariana ****
Red Pine Pinus resinosa ****
Pitch Pine Pinus rigida ****
Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus ****
Eastern Hemlock Tsuga canadensis ****
Balsam Fir Abies balsamea **
Shortleaf Pine Pinus echinata **
Virginia Pine Pinus virginiana **
Plantaginaceae Heartleaf Plantain Plantago cordata ****
Goose Tongue Plantago maritima ****
Dwarf Plantain Plantago pusilla ***
Blackseed Plantain Plantago rugelii **
Virginia Plantain Plantago virginica **
Platanaceae American Sycamore Platanus occidentalis ****
Plumbaginaceae Carolina Sealavender Limonium carolinianum ****
Poaceae Winter Bentgrass Agrostis hyemalis ****
Upland Bentgrass Agrostis perennans ****
American Beachgrass Ammophila breviligulata ****
Bushy Bluestem Andropogon glomeratus ****
Broomsedge Bluestem Andropogon virginicus ****
Slimspike Threeawn Aristida longispica ****
Fringed Brome Bromus ciliatus ****
Hairy Woodland Brome Bromus pubescens ****
Mat Sandbur Cenchrus longispinus ****
Sanddune Sandbur Cenchrus tribuloides ****
Sweet Woodreed Cinna arundinacea ****
Flattened Oatgrass Danthonia compressa ****
Poverty Oatgrass Danthonia spicata ****
Wavy Hairgrass Deschampsia flexuosa ****
Deertongue Dichanthelium clandestinum ****
Starved Panicgrass Dichanthelium depauperatum ****
Velvet Panicum Dichanthelium scoparium ****
Inland Saltgrass Distichlis spicata ****
Canada Wildrye Elymus canadensis ****
Eastern Bottlebrush Grass Elymus hystrix ****
Virginia Wildrye Elymus virginicus ****
Lace Grass Eragrostis capillaris ****
Teal Lovegrass Eragrostis hypnoides ****
Tufted Lovegrass Eragrostis pectinacea ****
Red Fescue Festuca rubra ****
Creeping Mannagrass Glyceria acutiflora ****
Rattlesnake Mannagrass Glyceria canadensis ****
Vanilla Grass Hierochloe odorata ****
Whitegrass Leersia virginica ****
Nimblewill Muhlenbergia schreberi ****
Rock Muhly Muhlenbergia sobolifera ****
Witchgrass Panicum capillare ****
Warty Panicgrass Panicum verrucosum ****
Switchgrass Panicum virgatum ****
Thin Paspalum Paspalum setaceum ****
Common Reed Phragmites australis ****
Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium ****
Smooth Cordgrass Spartina alterniflora ****
Big Cordgrass Spartina cynosuroides ****
Shiny Wedgescale Sphenopholis nitida ****
Prairie Wedgescale Sphenopholis obtusata ****
Swamp Wedgescale Sphenopholis pensylvanica ****
Composite Dropseed Sporobolus compositus ****
Pale False Mannagrass Torreyochloa pallida ****
Purpletop Tridens Tridens flavus ****
Purple Sandgrass Triplasis purpurea ****
Eastern Gamagrass Tripsacum dactyloides ****
Sixweeks Fescue Vulpia octoflora ****
Tapered Rosette Grass Dichanthelium acuminatum ***
Variable Panicgrass Dichanthelium commutatum ***
Slimleaf Panicgrass Dichanthelium linearifolium ***
Roundseed Panicgrass Dichanthelium sphaerocarpon ***
Wirestem Muhly Muhlenbergia frondosa ***
Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinata ***
puffsheath Dropseed Sporobolus neglectus ***
Rough Bentgrass Agrostis scabra **
Creeping Bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera **
Big Bluestem Andropogon gerardii **
Churchmouse Threeawn Aristida dichotoma **
Arrowfeather Threeawn Aristida purpurascens **
Seaside Threeawn Aristida tuberculosa **
Bearded Shorthusk Brachyelytrum erectum **
Bluejoint Calamagrostis canadensis **
Arctic Reedgrass Calamagrostis coarctata **
Slender Woodoats Chasmanthium laxum **
Tufted Hairgrass Deschampsia caespitosa **
Bosc’s Panicgrass Dichanthelium boscii **
Broadleaf Rosette Grass Dichanthelium latifolium **
Heller’s Rosette Grass Dichanthelium oligosanthes **
Addison’s Rosette Grass Dichanthelium ovale **
hairy Wildrye Elymus villosus **
Purple Lovegrass Eragrostis spectabilis **
American Mannagrass Glyceria grandis **
Atlantic Mannagrass Glyceria obtusa **
Floating Mannagrass Glyceria septentrionalis **
Fowl Mannagrass Glyceria striata **
Rice Cutgrass Leersia oryzoides **
Bearded Sprangletop Leptochloa fusca fascicularis **
Mexican Muhly Muhlenbergia mexicana **
Woodland Muhly Muhlenbergia sylvatica **
Slender Muhly Muhlenbergia tenuiflora **
Bitter Panicgrass Panicum amarum **
Redtop Panicgrass Panicum rigidulum **
Field Paspalum Paspalum laeve **
Blackseed Speargrass Piptochaetium avenaceum **
Grove Bluegrass Poa alsodes **
Fowl Bluegrass Poa palustris **
Woodland Bluegrass Poa sylvestris **
Saltmarsh Alkaligrass Puccinellia fasciculata **
Shore Little Bluestem Schizachyrium littorale **
Marsh Bristlegrass Setaria parviflora **
Indiangrass Sorghastrum nutans **
Saltmeadow Cordgrass Spartina patens **
Slender Wedgescale Sphenopholis intermedia **
Poverty Dropseed Sporobolus vaginiflorus **
Annual Wildrice Zizania aquatica **
Polemoniaceae Wild Blue Phlox Phlox divaricata **
Moss Phlox Phlox subulata **
Greek Valerian Polemonium reptans **
Polygalaceae Procession Flower Polygala incarnata ****
Purple Milkwort Polygala sanguinea ****
Whorled Milkwort Polygala verticillata ****
Whorled Milkwort Polygala ambigua **
Drumheads Polygala cruciata **
Orange Milkwort Polygala lutea **
Nuttall’s Milkwort Polygala nuttallii **
Gaywings Polygala paucifolia **
Racemed Milkwort Polygala polygama **
Polygonaceae Water Knotweed Polygonum amphibium ****
Halberdleaf Tearthumb Polygonum arifolium ****
Carey’s Smartweed Polygonum careyi ****
Erect Knotweed Polygonum erectum ****
Swamp Smartweed Polygonum hydropiperoides ****
Pennsylvania Smartweed Polygonum pensylvanicum ****
Dotted Smartweed Polygonum punctatum ****
Bushy Knotweed Polygonum ramosissimum ****
Arrowleaf Tearthumb Polygonum sagittatum ****
Climbing False Buckwheat Polygonum scandens ****
Pleatleaf Knotweed Polygonum tenue ****
Jumpseed Polygonum virginianum ****
Greater Water Dock Rumex orbiculatus ****
Coastal Jointweed Polygonella articulata **
Fringed Black Bindweed Polygonum cilinode **
Seaside Knotweed Polygonum glaucum **
Pale Dock Rumex altissimus **
Heartwing Sorrel Rumex hastatulus **
Golden Dock Rumex maritimus **
Swamp Dock Rumex verticillatus **
Polypodiaceae Rock Polypody Polypodium virginianum ****
Pontederiaceae Grassleaf Mudplantain Heteranthera dubia **
Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata **
Portulacaceae Virginia Springbeauty Claytonia virginica ****
Carolina Springbeauty Claytonia caroliniana **
Potamogetonaceae Largeleaf Pondweed Potamogeton amplifolius **
Waterthread Pondweed Potamogeton diversifolius **
Variableleaf Pondweed Potamogeton gramineus **
Floating Pondweed Potamogeton natans **
Longleaf Pondweed Potamogeton nodosus **
Claspingleaf Pondweed Potamogeton perfoliatus **
Spotted Pondweed Potamogeton pulcher **
Small Pondweed Potamogeton pusillus **
Spiral Pondweed Potamogeton spirillus **
Flatstem Pondweed Potamogeton zosteriformis **
Sago Pondweed Stuckenia pectinatus **
Primulaceae Fringed Loosestrife Lysimachia ciliata ****
Earth Loosestrife Lysimachia terrestris ****
Tufted Loosestrife Lysimachia thyrsiflora ****
Starflower Trientalis borealis ****
American Featherfoil Hottonia inflata **
Lowland Yellow Loosestrife Lysimachia hybrida **
Whorled Yellow Loosestrife Lysimachia quadrifolia **
Seaside Brookweed Samolus valerandi parviflorus **
Pteridaceae Northern Maidenhair Adiantum pedatum ****
Hairy Lipfern Cheilanthes lanosa ****
Purple Cliffbrake Pellaea atropurpurea ****
Pyrolaceae Striped Prince’s Pine Chimaphila maculata ****
Pipsissewa Chimaphila umbellata ****
American Wintergreen Pyrola americana ****
Sidebells Wintergreen Orthilia secunda **
Waxflower Shinleaf Pyrola elliptica **
Ranunculaceae White Baneberry Actaea pachypoda ****
Red Baneberry Actaea rubra ****
Canadian Anemone Anemone canadensis ****
Candle Anemone Anemone cylindrica ****
Nightcaps Anemone quinquefolia ****
Tall Thimbleweed Anemone virginiana ****
Red Columbine Aquilegia canadensis ****
Yellow Marsh Marigold Caltha palustris ****
Black Bugbane Cimicifuga racemosa ****
Devil’s Darning Needles Clematis virginiana ****
Roundlobe Hepatica Hepatica nobilis ****
Littleleaf Buttercup Ranunculus abortivus ****
Greater Creeping spearwort Ranunculus flammula ****
Pennsylvania Buttercup Ranunculus pensylvanicus ****
Low Spearwort Ranunculus pusillus ****
Blisterwort Ranunculus recurvatus ****
Cursed Buttercup Ranunculus sceleratus ****
Purple Meadow-rue Thalictrum dasycarpum ****
Early Meadow-rue Thalictrum dioicum ****
Rue anemone Thalictrum thalictroides ****
Curlyheads Clematis ochroleuca **
Threeleaf Goldthread Coptis trifolia **
Waterplantain Spearwort Ranunculus ambigens **
Alkali Buttercup Ranunculus cymbalaria **
Early Buttercup Ranunculus fascicularis **
Yellow Water Buttercup Ranunculus flabellaris **
Bristly Buttercup Ranunculus hispidus **
Rock Buttercup Ranunculus micranthus **
Threadleaf Crowfoot Ranunculus trichophyllus **
King of the Meadow Thalictrum pubescens **
Waxyleaf Meadow-rue Thalictrum revolutum **
American Globeflower Trollius laxus **
Rhamnaceae New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus ****
Rosaceae Harvestlice Agrimonia parviflora ****
Canadian Serviceberry Amelanchier canadensis ****
Cockspur Hawthorn Crataegus crus-galli ****
Scarlet Hawthorn Crataegus pedicellata ****
Waxyfruit Hawthorn Crataegus pruinosa ****
Shrubby Cinquefoil Dasiphora fruticosa floribunda ****
Virginia Strawberry Fragaria virginiana ****
Spring Avens Geum vernum ****
Cream Avens Geum virginianum ****
Sweet Crabapple Malus coronaria ****
Black Chokeberry Photinia melanocarpa ****
Red Chokeberry Photinia pyrifolia ****
Dwarf Cinquefoil Potentilla canadensis ****
Norwegian Cinquefoil Potentilla norvegica ****
Common Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex ****
Beach Plum Prunus maritima ****
Pin Cherry Prunus pensylvanica ****
Black Cherry Prunus serotina ****
Chokecherry Prunus virginiana ****
Carolina Rose Rosa carolina ****
Swamp Rose Rosa palustris ****
Virginia Rose Rosa virginiana ****
Allegheny blackberry Rubus allegheniensis ****
Smooth Blackberry Rubus canadensis ****
Sand Blackberry Rubus cuneifolius ****
Northern Dewberry Rubus flagellaris ****
Bristly Dewberry Rubus hispidus ****
Black Raspberry Rubus occidentalis ****
Purpleflowering Raspberry Rubus odoratus ****
American Mountain Ash Sorbus americana ****
Steeplebush Spiraea tomentosa ****
Common Serviceberry Amelanchier arborea ***
Running Serviceberry Amelanchier stolonifera ***
Copenhagen Hawthorn Crataegus intricata ***
Tall Hairy Agrimony Agrimonia gryposepala **
Soft Agrimony Agrimonia pubescens **
Silverweed Cinquefoil Argentina anserina **
Dwarf Hawthorn Crataegus uniflora **
Yellow Avens Geum aleppicum **
White Avens Geum canadense **
Purple Chokeberry Photinia floribunda **
Common Ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius **
American Plum Prunus americana **
Sandcherry Prunus pumila **
Climbing Rose Rosa setigera **
Grayleaf Red Raspberry Rubus idaeus strigosus **
Pennsylvania Blackberry Rubus pensilvanicus **
Canadian Burnet Sanguisorba canadensis **
White Meadowsweet Spiraea alba **
Rubiaceae Common Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis ****
Rough Bedstraw Galium asprellum ****
Northern Bedstraw Galium boreale ****
Lanceleaf Wild Licorice Galium lanceolatum ****
Fragrant Bedstraw Galium triflorum ****
Partridgeberry Mitchella repens ****
Clustered Mille Graines Oldenlandia uniflora ****
Common Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre ***
Poorjoe Diodia teres **
Stickywilly Galium aparine **
Licorice Bedstraw Galium circaezans **
Hairy Bedstraw Galium pilosum **
Stiff Marsh Bedstraw Galium tinctorium **
Threepetal Bedstraw Galium trifidum **
Azure Bluet Houstonia caerulea **
Longleaf Summer Bluet Houstonia longifolia **
Ruppiaceae Widgeongrass Ruppia maritima **
Rutaceae Common Hoptree Ptelea trifoliata ****
Common Pricklyash Zanthoxylum americanum **
Salicaceae Balsam Poplar Populus balsamifera ****
Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata ****
Swamp Cottonwood Populus heterophylla ****
Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides ****
Sageleaf Willow Salix candida ****
Pussy Willow Salix discolor ****
Missouri River Willow Salix eriocephala ****
Prairie Willow Salix humilis ****
Black Willow Salix nigra ****
Silky Willow Salix sericea ****
Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides ***
Bebb Willow Salix bebbiana **
Heartleaf Willow Salix cordata **
Narrowleaf Willow Salix exigua **
Meadow Willow Salix petiolaris **
Santalaceae Bastard Toadflax Comandra umbellata **
Sarraceniaceae Purple Pitcherplant Sarracenia purpurea **
Saururaceae Lizard’s Tail Saururus cernuus ****
Saxifragaceae American Golden Saxifrage Chrysosplenium americanum ****
Fen Grass of Parnassus Parnassia glauca ****
Eastern Swamp Saxifrage Saxifraga pensylvanica ****
Early Saxifrage Saxifraga virginiensis ****
American Alumroot Heuchera americana **
Twoleaf Miterwort Mitella diphylla **
Heartleaf Foamflower Tiarella cordifolia **
Schizaeaceae Little Curlygrass Fern Schizaea pusilla **
Scrophulariaceae Saltmarsh False Foxglove Agalinis maritima ****
Smallflower False Foxglove Agalinis paupercula ****
Purple False Foxglove Agalinis purpurea ****
Slenderleaf False Foxglove Agalinis tenuifolia ****
Smooth Yellow False Foxglove Aureolaria flava ****
Downy Yellow False Foxglove Aureolaria virginica ****
White Turtlehead Chelone glabra ****
Yellowseed False Pimpernel Lindernia dubia ****
Sharpwing Monkeyflower Mimulus alatus ****
Allegheny Monkeyflower Mimulus ringens ****
Canadian Lousewort Pedicularis canadensis ****
Swamp Lousewort Pedicularis lanceolata ****
Carpenter’s Square Scrophularia marilandica ****
Culver’s Root Veronicastrum virginicum ****
Fernleaf Yellow False Foxglove Aureolaria pedicularia **
Scarlet Indian Paintbrush Castilleja coccinea **
Golden Hedgehyssop Gratiola aurea **
Clammy Hedgehyssop Gratiola neglecta **
Welsh Mudwort Limosella australis **
Narrowleaf Cowwheat Melampyrum lineare **
Hairy Beardtongue Penstemon hirsutus **
Lanceleaf Figwort Scrophularia lanceolata **
American Speedwell Veronica americana **
Neckweed Veronica peregrina **
Skullcap Speedwell Veronica scutellata **
Selaginellaceae Meadow Spikemoss Selaginella apoda ****
Northern Selaginella Selaginella rupestris ****
Smilacaceae Cat Greenbrier Smilax glauca ****
Smooth Carrionflower Smilax herbacea ****
Roundleaf Greenbrier Smilax rotundifolia ****
Solanaceae Clammy Groundcherry Physalis heterophylla ****
Virginia Groundcherry Physalis virginiana ****
Longleaf Groundcherry Physalis longifolia ***
Husk Tomato Physalis pubescens **
Sparganiaceae Branched Bur-reed Sparganium androcladum ****
American Bur-reed Sparganium americanum **
Broadfruit Bur-reed Sparganium eurycarpum **
Staphyleaceae American Bladdernut Staphylea trifolia ****
Taxaceae Canada Yew Taxus canadensis ****
Thelypteridaceae Long Beechfern Phegopteris connectilis ****
Broad Beechfern Phegopteris hexagonoptera ****
New York Fern Thelypteris noveboracensis ****
Eastern Marsh Fern Thelypteris palustris ****
Bog Fern Thelypteris simulata **
Thymelaeaceae Eastern Leatherwood Dirca palustris ****
Tiliaceae American Basswood Tilia americana ****
Typhaceae Broadleaf Cattail Typha latifolia ****
Ulmaceae Common Hackberry Celtis occidentalis ****
American Elm Ulmus americana ****
Slippery Elm Ulmus rubra ****
Urticaceae Smallspike False Nettle Boehmeria cylindrica ****
Canadian Woodnettle Laportea canadensis ****
Pennsylvania Pellitory Parietaria pensylvanica ****
Canadian Clearweed Pilea pumila ****
California Nettle Urtica dioica gracilis **
Verbenaceae American Lopseed Phryma leptostachya ****
Swamp Verbena Verbena hastata ****
Narrowleaf Vervain Verbena simplex ****
White Vervain Verbena urticifolia ****
Violaceae Marsh Blue Violet Viola cucullata ****
Bog White Violet Viola lanceolata ****
Early Blue Violet Viola palmata ****
Birdfoot Violet Viola pedata ****
Downy Yellow Violet Viola pubescens ****
Arrowleaf Violet Viola sagittata ****
Common Blue Violet Viola sororia ****
Sand Violet Viola affinis **
Sweet White Violet Viola blanda **
Canadian White Violet Viola canadensis **
American Dog Violet or Alpine Violet Viola conspersa **
Smooth White Violet Viola macloskeyi pallens **
Roundleaf Yellow Violet Viola rotundifolia **
Striped Cream Violet Viola striata **
Viscaceae Oak Mistletoe Phoradendron leucarpum **
Vitaceae Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia ****
Summer Grape Vitis aestivalis ****
Fox Grape Vitis labrusca ****
Riverbank Grape Vitis riparia ****
Xyridaceae Bog Yelloweyed Grass Xyris difformis **
Slender Yelloweyed Grass Xyris torta **
Zannichelliaceae Horned Pondweed Zannichellia palustris **
Zosteraceae Seawrack Zostera marina ****